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A- without or lack of
a/men/orrhea without or lack of/monthly/flow
Ab- away (away from)
ab/norm/al away (away from)/normal or regular/ refers to
ab/ducens away/draw or lead
-able capability of or ability to
erg/able work/capable of
abort/io to miscarry (natural or induced)
abort/ion to miscarry (natural or induced)/procedure of or process of (discharge of the embry/o "early" or fet/us "young" deliberate or not)
abrupt/io- to tear away from
abruptus placentae to tear away from (seperate quickly)/ cake
abscess a going away
acne pointed
acoust/i hearing
acoust/ic hearing/refers to
acr/o extremities, height, and pointed
acro/phob/ia height/fear/refers to
acro/megal/y extremities/enlarged/refers to
acr/om/ial extremity/shoulder/refer to
actin/o sun, ray, radium
actino/myco/sis ray, sun, radium/fungus/condition (growth)
acu- sharp
acu/ity sharp/process of
acute quick, sharply, sudden
-ac refers to, state of, pertains to
cardi/ac heart/refers to, pertains to, state of
ad- near or beside
ad/ren/al near or beside/kidney/refers to
aden/o gland
aden/ectomy gland/removal
adip/o fat
adip/oma fat/tumor
aer/o air or gas
aero/cele air or gas/distension of cavity
af- toward
af/ferent toward/to carry
alb/o white
albin/ism white/state of
alges/i- pain
an/alges/ic without/pain/refers to
-algia pain
neur/algia nerve/pain
alopec/i fox mange or baldness
alopec/ia fox mange or baldness/refers to
alveol/i cavity
alveol/us small hollow or cavity/refers to
ambi- both
ambi/later/al both/sides/refers to
ambi/dextr/ous both/right (dominant hand)/refers to or state of
dextero right
sinistro left
ambul/o to walk
ambul/atory to walk or walking/ process of
amphi- both
amphi/arthr/osis both sides/joint/condition of
amylo- starch
amyl/uria starch/in urine
amyl/ase starch/enzyme
an- lack of or without
an/orex/ia lack of or without/appetite/refers to
an/o- ring
an/al ring (sphincter of anus)/refers to
ana- apart or up
ana/tom/y apart or up/cut/procedure of or process of
ana/phase up/stage
anaphase mitosis stage when chromosomes move up or apart
angi/o- vessel
angi/oma vessel/swelling or tumor
angin/o- vessel
angin/a refers to a vessel condition of choking or blocking of blood flow to the heart muscle (results in chest pain or discomfort)
ankyl/o- fuse or bind
ankylo/spondylo/itis fuse or bind/stiff/crooked,spine, inflammation
ante- before
ante/nat/al before/birth/pertain to
ante/pyrect/ic before/fever/refers to
anter/o- before or foremost
anter/ior before or foremost (in front)/refers to
anthrax coal or carbuncle
anthr/ax coal or carbuncle/ a lesion
anti- against
anti/sept/ic against/infection/refers to
anti/bio/tic against/life/refers to
anuerysm- dilation or ballooning
anuerysm/oplasty dilation or ballooning/surgical repair
-apheresis to remove or separate (blood into parts)
leuko/aphere/sis WBC/to remove or separate/condition of (separate blood into component parts or remove toxins)
apo- above or upon
apo/plex/y above or upon/paralyzed/process of
aqua- water
aqua/therap/y water/treat/process or procedure
arachino- spider
arach/noid spider/resembles
arche/o- first
arche/type first or original/form or shape (it produces other forms)
-aria air
mal/aria bad/air
arteri/o- artery
arterio/gram artery/recording
arterio/scler/osis artery/hard/condition
arter/iol/oma artery/small/swelling
arthro- joint
arthro/scop/ic joint/viewing or examining/pertains to
articul/o- jointed
articul/ation jointed/process of
-ar refers to or pertains to
patell/ar little dish (knee cap)/refers to
ascar/i- worm
ascari/asis worm/condition of
helminthiasis worm condition
vermiform worm/shape
-ase enzyme
lip/ase fat/enzyme
-asthenia weakness
my/asthenia muscle/without strength; or having weakness
neur/asthenia nerve/weakness
asthma- panting
asthama/tic panting/refers to
ATELO- incomplete, without end, imperfect ending
atelo/spir/osis incomplete, without end, imperfect ending/breathing/condition of
ATHERO- porridge or yellow fat
athero/scler/osis porridge or yellow fat/harden (in lumen of blood vessels)/condition or disease
-ATION process of or procedure of
circul/ation circle/process of (blood moving from heart and returning)
cardio/graph/y heart/instrument to record/procedure of
-ATRESIA closure
ven/atresia vein/closure
ATRI/O- chamber
atri/um chamber/refers to
ATTRIT/I- wearing out
attrit/ion wearing out/process of
AUDI- hearing
audi/olog/y hearing/science of or study of/ procedure or process of
audio/meter hear/measurement
AUR/I- ear
aur/al ear/pertains to
aur/icle ear/small or little
AUSCULT/O- to listen
auscult/ation to listen (physical diagnosis)/process of
AUTO- self
auto/hypn/osis self/sleep/condition of (simulated sleep in alpha brain state of consciousness)
aut/ism self/state of
burs/a sac, wine sac, pouch/refers to(protective pad-like structure in joints)
blister or bulla 'bubble'/refers to(bleb/ic is a bulb or blister that often is filled with blood)
BLENNO- mucus
blen/oma mucus/tumor or swelling
BLEPHARO- eyelid
blephar/oma eyelid/swelling or tumor
BOL/O- lump or ball
bol/us lump or ball, choice bit of food (in stomach), to throw up /refers to
BRACH/I- arm
brachi/al arm/refers to(humerus is the bone of upper arm)
BRACHY- short
brachy/dactyl/ia short/fingers (and toes)/refers to
BRADY- slow
brady/pnea slow/breathing
BREVI- short
brev/ity short/state of
BRONCH/I- windpipe or trachea like
bronchi/al windpipe or trachea like (large lung tubes)/refers to
BRUX- grinding
brux/ism grinding (teeth)/state of
BUCCA- cheek
bucc/al cheek/pertains to
BULBA blister or vesicle
Bulb/us blister or vesicle (little sac)/refers to
BULIMO- hunger
bulim/ic hunger or appetite (excessive)/refers to or condition of(eating and purging syndrome)
BURS/O- sac, wine sac, pouch
burs/a sac, wine sac, pouch/refers to(protective pad-like structure in joints)
CAL/O- heat, heated or hot
cal/or heat, heated or hot/one who is(1 of 4 characteristics of inflammation: calor-heat; rubor-red; tumor-swelling; and dolor-pain)
CALCIN/O- calcium
calcin/osis calcium/condition of(excessive calcium buildup on bones)
CALCO- pebbles or granules of calcium mineral
calc/ium pebbles or granules of calcium mineral/pertains to
calc/urea pebbles or granules of calcium mineral in urine
CALX- heel or lime
calx/ectom/y heel (foot bone)/removal/procedure of
CANDID/I- glowing white
candidi/asis glowing white (fungus infection)/condition of
CANTH/O- corner of eye
cantho/plast/y corner of eye (eyelid)/cosmetic or plastic surgery/procedure of
CAPILL/O- hair-like
capill/ary hair-like/pertains to or refers to
CAPIT/O- head
capit/al head/refers to
CAPN/O- carbon dioxide
capno/graph carbon dioxide (or smoke)/instrument(instrument used in exercise physiology to measure CO2)
CAPUT head
caput femoris head or head of (chief part of structure or organ)/thigh bone
CARBUN/O- glowing ember
carbun/cle glowing ember/small(numerous boils)
CARCIN/O- crab-like
carcino/gen/ic crab-like/producing/refer to(cancer causing)
CARDI/O- heart
peri/card/itis around/heart/inflammation(inflamed 2 layered membrane of heart: causing pain)
CARP/O- wrist
meta/carp/al beyond/wrist/refers to
CATA- breakdown or down
cata/bol/ism breakdown or down/choice bit of food or lump/state of
CATARACT waterfall or cloudiness
cataract waterfall or cloudiness(eyes lens under the cornea that is impervious to light)
CATARRH- to flow down
Catarrh/al to flow down/refers to(any drainage from mucus membrane: especially in the nose, sinuses, and throat)
CATHETER/O- to let down into
catheter/iz/ation to let down into/act of/procedure of
CAUD/O- tail or toward tail
caud/al tail or toward tail/refer to
CAUST/O- burn or heat
caus/tic burn or heat/refers to
CAUTER/O- to burn or to heat
cauter/iz/ation to burn or to heat/act of/procedure of
CAV- hollow
cav/ity hollow/state of or refers to
CEBO- meal or food
ceb/um meal or food/pertain to(cena- and dino- also means dinner)
CEC/O- blind pouch
Ceco/pexy blind pouch/surgically attached to abdominal wall(dead end pouch or 1st part of colon -right side)
-CELE swelling or tumor
laparo/cele abdominal/swelling or tumor
CELI/O- abdomen or belly
celi/oma abdomen or belly/tumor
CELLUL/O- chambers
cellul/itis chambers or body cells (tissues are cell groups)/infection
CEMENT/O- hard
cement/um hard/refers to (tooth root covering)
-CENTESIS surgical puncture to drain fluid
thoraco/centesis chest/surgical puncture to drain fluid (procedure)
CENTI- one-hundredth part (100)
centi/meter one-hundredth part (100)/of meter(metre- or -meter means to measure & a meter is 39.37 inches)
CENTR/I- center
Centri/fug/al Center (middle of circle)/to flee/refers to(heavy particles move to bottom or outside from the center)
CEPHAL/O- head
en/cephal/itis within/head/inflamed(refers to brain within the head)
-CEPT- receiver
chemo/cept/or chemical or drug/receiver or to recieve/one who
CEREB/O- brain
cerebr/al brain/refers to or pertains to
CERU- wax
cerumen/ous wax (in ear)/refer to or state of
CERV/I- neck
cerv/ical neck (seven upper vertebrae of spine)/refers to
cerv/ix neck/pertains to
CHALAZ/IO- hailstone
Chalaz/ion hailstone (eyelid sebaceous cyst)/process of(tumor that is small and hard on the eyelid)
CHANCR/O- ulcer (sore)
chancr/oid ulcer (sore)/resembles(this V.D. has granular lesions that form ulcers or sores like syphilis)
CHEIL/O- lip
cheil/oma lip/tumor
CHIRO- hand
chiro/pract/or hand/practice/one who(mano also means hand)
CHLOR/O- green
chlor/emia green (chlorides)/in blood
CHOLANGIO- bile duct
cholang/itis bile duct/inflamed
CHOLE- bile or gall
chole/sterol bile or gall (ingredient of)/ solid(Chole 'bile' is used to refer to anything
CHOLECYST/O- gallbladder
cholecyst/ectomy gallbladder/removal
CHOLEDOCH/O- gallbladder duct (canal)
choledoch/ectomy common bile duct/removal or excision
CHOLERA biliary acute diarrhea
cholera biliary acute dia/rrhea(bowel or intestinal diarrhea 'flow'. The bacteria causes de/hydra/tion and death)
CHONDR/O- cartilage
chondr/oma cartilage/tumor
dys/chondro/plas/ia faulty/cartilage/formation or development/refers to
CHROM/O- colored
chromo/some colored/body
CHYME- juice
a/chym/ia lack of/juice/condition
brachio/cicatrix arm/scar
-CID to kill
sui/cid/al oneself/to kill/refers to
CIL/I- eyelash-like
cil/ia eyelash-like (structures lining lungs)/refers to
CINE/O- movement filming
cine/angio/cardio/graph/y movement/vessel/heart/filming instrument/procedure
CIRCUM- around
circum/flex around/bend
circum/cis/ion around/cut/process of
circum/duct/ion around/movement/state of
CIRRH/O- yellow-orange
cirrh/o/sis yellow-orange (jaundiced) or yellow/condition of
-CIS cut or to cut
in/cis/ion into/cut/procedure of
-CLAST breakdown
osteo/clast bone/breakdown of cells
cyto/clas/is cell/breaking/refers to
CLAVICUL/O- collarbone
infra/clavicul/ar beneath/collarbone or clavicle (little key shape)/refer to
CLEIDO- clavicle or collar bone
sterno/cleido/mast/oid sternum/clavicle, collar bone/breast/resemble
CLINO- bent
clino/dactylia bent/finger or toe
-CLYSIS irrigation or injection
hydro/clysis water/irrigation or injection
CO- two
co/llater/al liga/ment two (2 outer knee ligaments)/sides/refers: binding/act of
co-operat/ive two/working/state of
COAGUL/O- clotting or to clot
coagul/ation clotting or to clot/process of
-COCCUS berry
staphylo/coccus grapelike/ berry (shape of bacteria)
COCCYG/O- tailbone
coccyg/eal tailbone/refers to or small
COCHLE/O- snail-like
cochle/ar snail-like/pertain to
COL/O- colon (big or large intestine)
col/os/tom/y colon /mouth or opening/cut/procedure of
COLPO- vagina
colp/itis vagina/inflamed
COM- together
com/press/ion together/contract/process of
com/minuted fracture together/small: break
COMATO- deep sleep
comat/ose deep sleep/condition or state
CONCUSS/I- violent shaking
concuss/ion violent shaking/process of
CONDYLO- knuckle
condyl/oma knuckle (nob)/tumor or swellings
CONI/O- dust
pneumo/coni/osis lung/dust/condition
-CONIS cone-shaped
kerato/conis cornea/cone-shaped
CONJUNCTIV/O- joined together
conjunctiv/itis joined together (united)/inflammation
CONTRA- against
contra/cept/ion against/heads (coming together)/process of
CONTUS/I- bruise
contus/ion bruise/process of
CONVOLO- to roll together
convol/ution to roll together/pertains to
CORD- vocal chords or cord
cord/itis vocal chords/inflamed
CORI/O- skin
cori/um skin/refers to
CORNE/O- cornea or horn shape
corne/itis cornea or horn/inflamed
CORNU- horn or horny
stratum cornu (corneum) layer/horn or horny (upper epidermis skin layer)
CORON/O- crowning
coron/ary crowning (heart blood vessels)/refer to
CORONAL PLANE crowning or frontal body cut
coron/al crowning or frontal body cut/refers to
CORP/O- body
corp/us body/refers to
CORTIC/O- bark, outer bark, rind, cortex
cortico/ster/oid bark, outer bark, rind, cortex/solid/resemble
COST/O- rib
cost/al rib/refer to
CRANI/O- skull
crani/otom/y skull (cranium)/cut into/procedure of
crani/al skull/refer to
-CREAS fleshy or flesh
pan/creas all/fleshy or flesh
CRENAT/O- notched
crenat/ion notched/process of
-CRINE secrete
endo/crine within/secrete (into blood)
exo/crine outside/secrete (into duct or canal)
-CRIT separate
hemato/crit blood/separate
CRUC/I- cross or cross-like
cruci/ate cross (shape)/state of or condition of
CRYO- cold
cryo/therap/y cold/treat or cure (killing cells)/procedure of
CRYPTO- hidden
crypt/orchid/ism hidden/testis/state of or condition of
CUB/O- cube or cube-shaped
cub/oid cube or cube-shaped/resemble
CUBIT/O- elbow
cubit/al elbow, forearm region/refer to elbow region
CULD/O- blind pouch
culdo/scop/y blind pouch/viewing/procedure of
-CULE little
mole/cule mass/little
CURRETT/O- scooping or scraping
curett/age scooping or scraping/refers to
-CUSIS hearing
an/cusis without/hearing
CUSP/I- pointed
cusp/id pointed (end)/refers to
CUTI/O-, CUT-, CUTI- skin
cut/icle skin/little
sub/cut/aneous under/skin/refers to
CYAN/O- blue
cyan/osis blue/condition of
CYCL/O- circle
cycl/itis circle/inflamed
-CYESIS pregnancy
multi/cyesis many/pregnancy
CYST/O- bladder or sac
cyst/itis bladder or sac/inflamed
CYTE- cell or chamber
cyt/olog/y cell or chamber/study of or science of/process of
–CYTOSIS increase in numbers
leuco/cytosis white(WBC)/ increase in numbers
DACRYO- tear
dacry/doct/itis tear/duct/inflamed
DACTYLO- digits (fingers and toes)
lipo/dactyl/ia fat/digits (finger or toes)/refers to
DE- away
de/gluti/tion away/swallowing/process of
de/form away/shape
DECI- one-tenth (1/10)
deci/liter one-tenth(1/10) / liter(Deca- means 10)
DEEP most inward
deep most inward(structure more internal than another)
DEKA- ten
deka/gram ten/grams(15.432 grains = 1 gram; 28.35 grams = 1 ounce)
DELTA fan shaped or triangular
delt/oid (shoulder muscle) fan shaped or triangular/resembles
DEM/O- people
Dem/o/graphy people/procedure of recording with an instrument
DEMI- Half
demi/facet half/little face(superior and inferior projections of the vertebral arch)
DENDR/O- tree shaped
dendr/ite tree-shaped/state of
DENT/O- tooth or teeth
dent/al tooth or teeth/pertains to
depress/or lower/one who
DERM/O- skin
pachy/derm/al thick/skin/pertains to
DERMAT/O- skin
dermato/phyte skin/plant(fungus or other plant that causes parasitic skin diseases)
dermat/itis skin/inflamed
–DESIS binding or to bind
ligo/desis to bind/binding(surgical procedure to reattach ligaments to bone)
dextro/card/ia right/heart/refers to(tilting of heart to the right)
DIA- across, through, total, between
dia/phragm across, through, total, complete, between/petition or wall
dia/meter across/measure
dia/gnosis total/ knowledge
dia/stole between/contractions
–DIDYMUS testis or testee
pi/didymus upon/testis or teste(coiled structure on top of teste 'seed producer')
DIFFERENT- to separate
different/ial dia/gnosis to separate or apart/refers to: total/knowledge
DIGIT- finger or toe
Digit/al finger or toe/refer to
digit/ate finger or toe/action of or refers to
DIPLO- double or two
dipl/op/ia double or two/sight or vision/refers to(person experiencing double vision)
DIPS/O- thirst or thirsty
poly/dips/ia many/thirst or thirsty/refer to
multi/dips/ia many/thirst or thirsty/pertain to
DIPHTHER/I- membrane
diphther/ia membrane/refer to
DIS- away from or reversed
dis/ease away from or reverse/comfort or ease
DIST/O- farther from
dist/al farther from/refer to
DIVERTICUL/O- outpouching
diverticul/itis outpouching/inflamed
DOCH/O- duct or canal
chole/doch/itis bile or gall/duct or canal/inflamed
DOCT/O- to teach or teacher
doct/or (Latin docere) to teach or teacher/one who
DOL/O- Pain
dol/or pain/one who (causes)
DORS/O- Back
dors/al back (posterior)/refers to
DROMO- running
dromo/mania running/madness
pro/drom/al before/running/pertains to
DUCT/O- to draw or to lead away
ab/duct/ion away/to draw or to lead away (motion)/process of
DUODEN/O- twelve
duoden/itis twelve/inflamed
DURA- Hard
Dura/mater hard: mother
DY/O- two or a pair
dy/ad two or a pair/refers to (pair of chromosomes formed during meiosis 'reduction division of gametes')
DYNAM/O- work or strength
dynam/ics work or strength/refers to
dynamo/meter strength/measurement (measure the strength of muscles)
coccygo/dynia tailbone (coccyx)/pain
DYS- difficult, faulty, painful
dys/toc/ia difficult or painful/birth/pertains to
dys/chondro/plas/ia faulty/cartilage/development/refers to
dys/meno/rrhea painful/monthly/flow
-E (suffix) Instrument
rhino/scop/e nose/view or examine/instrument
E- (prefix) out or remove
e/viscer/ate out or remove/organs/act of or state of
EC- outside, outward, outer, out
ec/top/ic outside/location/pertaining to
ECCRINE- secreting or to secrete
eccri/tic secreting or to secrete/state of or quality of
ECHO- Sound
echo/gram sound/writing or recording
–ECTASIS enlargement or dilation
bronchi/ectasis windpipe like tube/enlargement, dilation
cardio/ectasis heart/enlargement condition
–ECTOMY excision or removal
tonsill/ectomy almond or small mass/excision or removal
ECZEMA to boil out
EDEMA- swelling
lymph/edema lymph/swelling
EF- away or out
ef/ferent away or out/to carry (nerve or blood flow away from a structure)
ef/fus/ion out/attached/process
ELECTR/O- electrical
electro/encephalo/gram electrical/in head (brain)/recording
–ELLUM lesser or smaller
cereb/ellum brain/lesser or smaller
EM- In
em/py/e main/pus/refers to (collection of pus in body cavity)
em/bol/ism within/lump/state
embryon/ic early (2nd through 8th to 10th week of pregnancy)/refers to
-EMESIS vomit
hem/emesis blood/vomit
-EMIA blood
leuc/emia (leukemia) white/blood(abnormal increase in WBC's)
EMPHYSEMA puffed up
emphysemat/ous puffed up/state of or refers to
EN- in
en/cephal/itis in/head (refers to brain)/inflamed
EN/CEPHAL/O- within head (referring to the brain)
encephalo/gram within head/recording
ENDO- within or inside
endo/derm within or inside/skin
ENEMA injection
ENTERO- intestine (usually refers to small intestine)
enter/itis intestine/inflamed
ENURESIS to void or expel urine
enuresis to void (expel) urine
EOSIN/O- rose red color
eosino/phil rose red (color)/love of
EPI- upon
epi/didymis upon/teste
epi/gastr/ic upon/stomach/pertains to
epi/glott/itis upon/tongue/inflamed
EPISI/O- pubic region
episi/orrhaphy pubic region/to stitch
episi/o/tom/y pubic region (vulva)/cut/process of
ERGO- work or labor
ergo/meter work/to measure
ergot work or labor (birthing drug)
ERYTHERMAT/O- red or flushed
erythermat/ic red or flushed/refer to
erythro/cyte red/cell (chamber)
eschar/ification snail like (scab)/process of (development)
ESO- toward
eso/phag/us toward/eater/refers to (tube from stomach to mouth)
ESTHES/I- physical feeling
an/esthes/ia without/physical feeling
ESTR/O- female
estro/gen female/beginning (phase of cycle)
ETI/O- cause
eti/olog/y cause/study or science of diseases/process
EU- good or normal
eu/toc/ia good or normal/birth/pertains to
eu/gene/tics good, new or normal/ to produce or form/ state of
eu/phor/ia good or normal/feeling (mental)/pertain to
EX- out, outside, outward
ex/tens/ion outward/to stretch/process of
FACET/O- face
FASC/I- band
fasc/ia band (covering around and between muscles 'membranous')/refers to
FEBR/O- fever
febr/ile fever/state of or refers to
FEC/O- stool or fecal matter
fec/o/lith stool (feces waste)/like stone
FEMOR/O- thigh
femor/al thigh/refer to
-FERENCE to carry
vas de/ference vessel: away/to carry
FERRO- iron
ferr/ous iron/state of
FET/O- young
feto/graph/y young/instrument/procedure of
fet/us young (last 6 & 1/2 months of development in uterus)/refer to
FIBRILL/O- to quiver
fibrill/ation to quiver (muscle fiber contraction)/process of
FIBRO- fiber
fibr/oma fiber (thread like structures)/tumor
FIBUL/O- to clasp
fibul/a to clasp/refers to (noun)
FIL- thread
fila/ment thread/state of or refers to
FISS- to split or splitting
fiss/ion splitting/refers to
fiss/ure cleft or split/state of
FISTUL/O- pipe or pipe stem
pyo/fistula pus/pipe or pipe-stem
FLEX- to bend
ante/flex/ion before/to bend or divert/process of
FLU- flowing
in/fluenza inward/condition of flowing
-FLUX to flow
re/flux again/flow
FORAMEN/O- opening
Foramen/al opening/refers to
FORE- before
fore/arm before/brachium or arm
FRACT/O- to break
fract/ure to break/refers to
FRONT/O- forehead or before
front/al forehead or before (front brow)/pertains to
FUNGI- mushroom
fungi/form mushroom or plant/shape
FURUN/O- boil
furun/cle boil/small
GALACT/O- milk
galacto/poiesis milk/production
GANGLI/O- knot, swelling, or collection
gangli/ectomy knot, swelling, or collection/excision
GANGREN/O- eating sore
gangren/ous eating sore/refers to
GASTR/O- stomach
gastr/itis stomach/inflamed
gastrocnemi/us calf of leg or stomach shape muscle in back of lower leg
GEN/O- race
geno/type race/classification (gene)
GENI/O- chin
geni/ec/tom/y chin/out/cutting/procedure of
GENIT/O- reproductive or birth
genit/al reproductive or birth/refers to
GENU- knee
genu/clast knee/breaking
-GEN origin, develop, to produce, to form, to make
carcino/gen crab-like/ to produce, to form, to make, origin, develop
carcino/gen/esis crab-like/origin or beginning/process of
GER/O- old or old age
ger/iatr/ic old or old age/treat or cure/study of or science of
GEST- to bear or separate
gest/ation to bear or separate/process of
gingiv/itis gum/inflamed
GLANDUL/O- little acorn or gland
glandul/ar little acorn or gland/refers to
GLAUC/O- waterfall or gray
glauc/oma waterfall or gray/swelling
GLI/O- glue or glue-like
gli/oma glue or glue-like/tumor
GLOMERUL/O- small round mass or tiny ball
glomerul/itis small round mass or tiny ball/inflamed
GLOSS/O- tongue
gloss/itis tongue/inflamed
glosso/pharyng/eal tongue/pharynx or throat/refers to
GLOTT/O- back of tongue
epi/glott/itis upon/back of tongue/inflamed
GLUT- buttocks
glut/itis buttocks (rear-end)/refer to
GLYCO- sugar
glyco/pen/ia sugar/decrease or lower/refers to
-GNOSIS knowledge
dia/gnosis total or complete/knowledge
GOITER swelling (throat)
goiter/ectomy swelling (throat)/removal of thyroid goiter
GON/O- seed or seed producer
gono/rrhea seed or seed producer/flowing from
GOUT a drop
-GRADE a step, stage, or degree in a process
retro/grade backward or behind/a step, stage, or degree in a process
-GRAFT to probe or cut with a knife
dermo/graft skin/to probe with knife (pole; probe; or steak)
-GRAM to record
myo/gram muscle/to record (write or take down)
-GRAPHY procedure of using an instrument to do recording
myo/graphy muscle/procedure of using an instrument to do recording
-GRAPH instrument
myo/graph muscle/instrument
GRAVID/O- heavy or pregnant
gravid/ium heavy or pregnant/refers to
GROIN inguinal region
GUMM/O- gum or gum like
Gumma gum or gum like
GUST/O- tasting or to taste
gust/ation tasting or to taste/process of
GYNEC/O- woman
gynec/olog/ist woman/science and study of/specialist
HALLUX great or big toe
hallux/ectomy great or big toe/removal
HAPLO- half (single)
hapl/oid half or single/resembling
HEALTH wholeness
HELICO- spiral
helico/bacter pylori spiral (shaped)/bacteria: gatekeeper (lower end of stomach)
HELIO- sun
helio/pathy sun/injury (caused by)
HELMINTH/O- worms or worm
helminth/iasis worms or worm/disease of or condition of
HEM/O- blood
hem/o/rrhage blood/bursting forth
hemo/kinesis blood/movement or flow
HEME- iron
hem/atin iron/small part
HEMI- half or one half
hemi/plegia half (right or left side of body)/paralyzed
HEPAT/O- liver
hepat/itis liver (cells)/inflamed
HEPT/A- seven
hepta/dactyl/ia seven/fingers or toes/refers to
HERNI/O- rupture or protrusion
hern/ia rupture or protrusion/condition of
HERPES to creep
HETER/O- other or opposite
hetero/gen/ous other or opposite/form/state of
HIAT- an opening
hiat/al an opening/refers to
HIDR/O- sweat
hidr/osis sweat (watery)/condition of
HIRSUT- hairy or profound hair
hirsut/ism hairy or profound hair/state of
-HISCENCE to gape open
de/hiscence away/to gape (open)
HISTO- web-like or tissue
hist/olog/y web-like or tissue/science or study of/process of
HOLIST/O- whole
holist/ic medicine whole/state of remedy or drug
HOMEO- same, constant, or unchanged
homeo/path/y same, constant, or unchanged/disease/process of
HORMON/O- to urge on
hormon/al to urge on/refers to
HUMER/O- arm (upper)
humer/al arm (upper)/refers to
HYAL/O- glassy or glass like
hyal/ase glassy or glass-like/enzyme
HYDRO- water
hydro/pneumo/thorax water/lung(within)/chest
hydro/cephalis water (cerebral spinal fluid)/head (within)
HYPER- increase or above
hyper/tens/ion above or excess/pressure (above 140 systolic/90 diastolic -BP)/process of
hyper/troph/y increase/development/process of
HYPN/O- sleep
Hypn/osis sleep/condition
HYPO- under or below
hypo/tens/ion under or below (pressure in vessels)/contraction/process of
hypo/derm/ic below/skin/pertaining to
HYSTER/O- uterus
hyster/ectomy uterus /removal
hyster/ia nervous reaction/refers to
IATR/O- treat or cure, procedure of treating
ger/iatr/ic old age/treat or cure/pertains to
-IA refers to, condition, state of
esthes/ia feeling (physical)/refers to, condition, state of
dys/phag/ia difficult/eating or swallowing/refers to
ICHTHY- fish or fish like
ichthy/osis fish or fish-like
-ICIAN one who
diet/ician food/one who
-ICLE small or tiny
oss/icle bone/small or tiny
-ISY inflamed
pleur/isy side or rib/inflamed
IDE/O- idea, thoughts, emotions, image
ideo/motor idea, thoughts, emotions, image/movement
ideo/vascul/ar emotions/vessels/refers to
IDIO- unique to or unknown cause
idio/path/ic unique to or unknown cause/disease/refer to
-ID state of
morb/id disease/state of
ILE/O- twisted
ile/um twisted/pertains to
ile/itis twisted/inflamed
ILIO- flank
ili/um flank (area)/refers to
IM- into or not
im/plant into/place or locate
im/potent not/powerful or strong
IMMUN/O- safe, protect, immune
immun/o/log/y safe, protect, immune/science of/process of
IN SITU in position or location
IN- into or not
in/di/gest/ion not/two/separations/process of
in/cis/or into/cut/pertain to
INCUS anvil
mallus/incus/stapes hammer/anvil/stirrup (shapes)
INFARCT- to stuff into
infarct/ion to stuff into/refers to
INFECT/O- to invade
infect/ion to invade/process of
INFLAM/O- flame within
inflamm/ation flame within/process of
INFRA- under or below
infra/clavicul/ar under or below/collar bone/refers to
infra/mur/al below/wall/pertaining to
INGUIN/O- groin
inguin/al groin/refers to
-ING procedure of or process of
operat/ing working/procedure of or process of
INTEGU- covering
integu/ment covering/refers to or state of
INTER- between
inter/cellul/ar between/cell or chamber/refers to
INTRA- within
intra/nuclear within/refers to nut
INTRO- within
intro/spect within/to view
INTUS- within
intus/suscept/ion within/to receive/process of
-IN substance or chemical
gastr/in stomach/substance or chemical
holo/crine (gland) all or whole/secretes substance or chemical
-IOLE smaller, lesser, diminutive
bronch/iole trachea-like (tubes of lungs)/smaller, lesser, diminutive
ION/O- going, ion movement
iono/therap/y going (of ions)/treat or cure/procedure of
-IOR one who is
infer/ior under or below/ one who (is)
-IOUS state of
delir/ious mental confusion or excitement/state of
IPSI- equal
ipsi/later/al equal/side or sides/process of
IR- not or lack of
ir/regul/ar not or lack of/consistent or regular/refers to
IR/O- rainbow
ir/is (noun) rainbow/refers to
ir/idescent rainbow/having or exhibiting
ISCH/O- deficiency, blockage, to hold back
isch/emic deficiency or blockage/refers to blood
isch/emia hold back/pertains to blood
ISCHI/O- hip joint or hip
Ischio/dynia hip joint or hip/pain
-ISH resembling or related to
lap/ish stone/resembling or related to
-ISM state of or condition of
giant/ism large/state of
albin/ism white/state of or condition of
ISO- equal or same
iso/ton/ic equal or same/tone/refers to
iso/cell/ar equal/cells/refers to
-IST specialist
endo/crin/olog/ist within/secrete/science or study of/specialist
-ITES dropsy or drooping
tympan/ites drum/dropsy or drooping
-ITIS inflamed or inflammation
gloss/itis tongue/inflamed or inflammation
-ITY state of
steril/ity barren (not capable of fertility)/state of
-IZE state of or acts like
cauter/ize burn/state of
hypnot/ize sleep/state of or acts like
JEJUNO- to empty (2nd part of small intestine)
jejun/um to empty (the second part of the small intestine/refers to
JUNCTIV/O- joining or to join
con/junctiv/itis together/joining or to join/inflamed
KALI- potassium
kali/penia potassium/decrease of
KARY/O- nucleus
karyo/kinesis nucleus/movement or motion
KEL/O- scar
kel/oid scar/resembling
KERAT/O- cornea or horny
kerato/malac/ia cornea (eye)/softening/refers to
KET/O- sour or acid
keto/sis sour or acid/condition
KIL/O- one thousand
kilo/gram one thousand/grams
KINE- movement or motion
kine/tic movement/state of or condition of
KRAUR/O- dryness
Kraur/o/sis dryness/condition
KYPH/O- hunchback
kyph/osis hunchback/condition
LABIO- lip
labi/oma lip/tumor
labrynith/itis maze/inflamed
LACER/O- to tear
lacer/ate to tear/refers to
LACRIM/O- tearing or tear
lacrim/al tearing or tear/refer to
LACT/O- milk
lact/ose milk/sugar
LAMIN/O- thin flat plate or layer
lamin/ectomy thin flat plate or layer/removal
lamin/ent thin flat plate or layer/having or possessing
LAP/I- stone
lap/is stone/refers to
-LAPSE falling or slippage
pro/lapse before/falling or slippage (means normal before slippage)
re/lapse again/falling or slippage
LARYNGO- voice box
laryng/itis voice box (larynx)/inflamed
LAT- side
lat/eral side/refers to
lat/issimus side (dorsal chest muscle)/refers to
LAX- to loosen or loosening
re/lax/ation again/to loosen/process of
LEI/O- smooth
leio/my/oma smooth/muscle/tumor
LENT/O- freckle
lent/icle freckle/small
LEPR/O- scaly
lepros/y scaly/process of
-LEPSY seizure or convulsion
epi/leps/y upon/seizure/process of
LEPTO- thin or slender
lepto/morph/ic thin or slender/shape or form/refers to
LEUK/O- white
leuk/aphere/sis white (white blood cells: WBC's)/separation/condition of
LEVAT/O- lift up
levat/or lift up (muscle)/one who
LIBID/O- desire
libid/al desire/refers to
LICHEN/I- plant
lichen/ific/ation plant/process of making (plant-like)
LIENO- spleen
lien/itis spleen/inflamed
LIGA- to bind
liga/ment to bind/state of
LINGU- tongue
bi/lingu/al two/tongue/pertain to
LIP/O- fat
lip/oma fat/tumor or swelling
-LISTHESIS slippage
spondylo/listh/esis vertebrae/slippage/condition of
-LITER liter
milli/liter one-thousandth/litre of fluid measurement
LITH/O- stone, calculus or rock
nephro/lith kidney/stone calculus or rock
LOB/O- lobe
lob/ectom/y lobe/removal or excision 'cut out'/procedure of
LORD/O- swayback (to bend)
lordo/sis swayback (to bend)/condition of
LUMB/O- loin
LUMP- small mass
lump/ectomy small mass/excised or removed
LUNA- moon or crescent-shaped
lun/ate moon or crescent-shaped/refers to
LUPUS wolf
lupus erythematosus wolf: red (faced)
LUTE/O- yellow
lute/al yellow/refers to
LUX- to dislocate
sub/lux/ation under or less/to dislocate/refers to
LYMPH/O- Watery
lymph/oma watery (clear fluid or serum)/tumor or swelling
–LYSIS destruction, breakdown, declining
auto/lysis self/destruction, breakdown, declining
hemo/lysis blood/breakdown
MACER/O- to make soft
macer/ation to make soft/process of
MACRO- large or huge
macro/phage large or huge/eater (WBC's)
macro/scop/ic large/viewing or seeing (eyeballing)/refers to
MACUL/O- large spot or flat skin freckle
macula lute a large yellow macule large spot or flat skin freckle
MAGNI- large or greater
magni/ficat/ion larger or greater/to make/process of
MAL- bad, harm, injury
mal/ignant bad, harm, injury/refers to (growing worse or resisting treatment)
mal/practice bad/action
MALAC/O- soft or softening
ostero/malac/ia bone/soft or softening/pertains to
MALL/E/OLUS little hammer
MALLE/O- hammer
malle/us hammer (middle ear bone)/refers to(noun)
MAMM/O- breast
mamm/ary breast/refers to
MAN/O- Hand
manu/al hand/pertain to
MAND/I- chew or chewer
mand/ible chew or chewer/ability to(lower jaw bone)
–MANIA Madness
klepto/mani/ac theft or steal/madness/pertains to
MASSET/O- chewer or to chew
masset/er chewer or to chew/one who(muscle from cheek bone to lower jaw)
MASSEUR male massager
MAST/O- breast
mast/ectom/y breast/removal/procedure of(partial or complete)
mast/oid breast/resembling
MASTIC/O- to chew or chewing
mastic/ation to chew or chewing/process of
–MATA Multiple
carcino/mata crab-like (cancerous growths)/multiple (many)
MAXILL/O- upper jaw
maxill/ary jaw/refers to
MEASLES rubella, reddish or red
MEAT/O- Opening
meat/us opening/refer to
MEDI- Middle
medi/an; medi/um; medi/al middle/refers to
MEGA- great or big
mega/colon great (big)/large intestine
MEGALO- huge or large
hepato/megal/y liver/huge/process of
MEI/O- and MIO- lesser, smaller, fewer, and constrict
mei/osis and Miotic lesser, smaller, fewer/condition of
MEL- sweet, honey, cheek, limb
mel/it is cheek/inflamed
mel/algia limb/pain
mel/on sweet/one who is
MELAN/O- Black
melan/oma black/tumor (skin cancer)
MEN/O- monthly or month
men/arche monthly or month/start
meno/pause monthly/stoppage
MENING/O- membrane
mening/itis membrane/inflamed
MENISC/O- crescent
menisc/ectomy crescent ('C' shaped)/excision
MENT/O- Mind
ment/al mind/pertains to
ante/mentum before/chin
MES/O- middle
mes/enter/y middle/ intestines/ state of
meso/derm middle/skin
META- beyond or change
meta/carp/al beyond/wrist/pertains to
meta/bol/ism change/lump/state of
meta/stasis change (from)/standing or stoppage
–METER Measurement
spiro/meter breathe/measurement
opto/metr/ist eye/measurement/specialist
METR/A- uterus or womb
endo/metr/iosis within/uterus or womb/condition
endo/metr/itis within/uterus or womb/inflammation
–METRY measurement procedure
opto/metr/y (O.D.) sight or vision/measurement/procedure or process
MICRO- small
micro/gloss/ia small/tongue/refers to
micro/scop/e small/viewing/instrument
MICTUR/O- to make water or urinate
mictur/ition to make water or urinate/process of
MILLI- one-thousandth
milli/meter one-thousandth/of meter (39.37 inches)
MINIMUS- smallest
minim/um smallest/refers to
com/minute together/small
-MITR/E head band or mitre box
mitr/al head band or mitre box/refers to
MOL/O- to mill or grind
mol/ar to mill or grind/refer to
MON/O- one
mono/nucle/osis one/ nut/ condition of
MORPHO- shape
a/morph/ous without/shape or form/state of or composed of
MORT/O- Death
mort/al death/refers to
–MOTOR movement or motion
oculo/motor eye/motion or movement
psycho/motor mind/movement
MUC/O- Slime
muc/oids lime/resembles
MULTI- many, multiple, excessive
multiple sclera/osis (MS) many: hardening/condition of
MUMPS swelling
MY/O- muscle
my/oma muscle or muscular/tumor
MYC/O- fungus
myc/oid fungus/resembles
MYDRI/O- to widen
mydri/opt/ic to widen/vision/refers to
MYEL/O- spinal cord or bone marrow
myelo/gram spinal cord/recording
myel/itis bone marrow/inflamed
MYRING/O- eardrum
myring/itis eardrum/inflamed (infected)
MYX/O- mucus
myx/oma mucus/tumor or swelling
myx/oid mucus/resembles
NANO- 1 billionth
nano/meter 1 billionth part
NARC/O- sleep
narco/lepsy sleep/seizure
NARES nose opening
NAS/O- nose
nas/al nose/refers to
NAT- birth
nat/al birth/refers to
NATRI- sodium or salt
hyper/natr/emia increase/sodium or salt/in blood
NAVICUL/O- boat or boat shaped
navicul/ar boat shaped/refer to
NECR/O- death, dead, dying
necrot/ic death, dead, dying/refers to
necr/osis death, dead, dying/condition of
NEO- new
neo/plasm new/growth
NEPHR/O- kidney
nephr/itis kidney/inflamed
NEUR/O- nerve
neur/algia nerve/pain
NEUTR/O- neither or neutral
neutro/phil(e) neither or neutral/love for
NEV/O- birthmark
nev/us birthmark/refers to
NIGRA- black
nigra bodies black: structures in and around cell nucleus
NIN/O- nine
nin/us nine/pertains to
NOCT/I- night or blind
noct/uria night/urination (excessive)
-NOIA mind
para/noia beyond/mind
NUCLE/O- nut
nucle/us nut(shaped)/refers to
NULL/I- none or no
nulli/para none or no (null or voided)/births
NUTRI/O- to nourish
nutri/tion to nourish/process of
-O/PEXY to fixate, attach, sew
nephr/opex/y kidney/fixate, attach, sew (suture)/procedure of
-O/PLASTY repair or plastic surgery
rhino/plast/y nose/repair or plastic surgery/procedure of
-O/RRHAGIA bursting forth or heavy flow
meno/rrhagia monthly (female cycle)/bursting forth (heavy flow)
-O/RRHEA discharge or flow
men/o/rrhea monthly/discharge or flow (slow)
gon/o/rrhea gonad/flow
-O/RRHEXIS rupture or protrusion
enter/o/rrhexis intestine (small)/rupture or protrusion
OBLIQUE side-long or slanted
OBSTETR/I- midwife
obstetr/ics midwife(childbirth)/pertains to
OCCIPIT/O- back of head
occipit/otomy back of head/opening (surgical procedure)
occipit/al back of head/pertains to
OCCLUSI/O- closure or blockage
occlus/ion closure or blockage/process of
OCCULT/O- hidden
occult/a (spina bi/fida) hidden (thorn: two/clefts)/refers to
OCT/O- eight
oct/agon eight/walls
OCUL/O- eye
oculo/motor eye/movement
ODONT/O- tooth
odont/oid tooth/resembling
-OID resembling
lip/oid fat/resembling
epi/derm/oid upper/skin/resembling
OLEO- oil
oleo/vitamin oil (fish oil)/life giving (fat soluble vitamins)
-OLEUM oil
oleo/infusion oil/injection
petr/oleum stone/oil
OLFACT/O- smelling or smell
olfact/ory smelling or smell/process of
OLIG/O- few, scanty, slight, little
oligo/meno/rrhea few, scanty, slight, little/monthly/flow
-OLOG/Y science or study of, process of
hist/olog/y web-like or tissue/science of or study of/process of
-OMA tumor or swelling
carcin/oma crab or crab-like/tumor or swelling
OMO- shoulder
omo/burs/itis shoulder (near arm)/sack/inflamed
OMPHAL/O- navel or umbilicus
omphal/ectomy navel or umbilicus/removal (excision)
ONC/O- tumor
onco/log/y tumor/science or study of/process of
onco/log/ist tumor/science of or study of/specialist
ONYCH/O- nail
onycho/fidia nail/split
OOPHOR/O- ovary
oophor/itis ovary (seed producer)/inflamed
OPHTHALM/O- eye or eyeball
ophthalm/olog/ist eye/science or study of/specialist
ophthalm/ic eye or eyeball/refer to
OPISTH/O- backwards (bending)
opistho/tonus backward (bending)/tone
OPTO- vision, sight, eye
opto/metr/ist vision or sight/measurement/specialist
ORA- mouth
or/al mouth/pertains to
ORB- circle or dish
orbit/al circle or dish (eye socket)/pertains to
ORCHI/O- teste or seed producer
orchi/oma teste or seed producer/tumor or swelling
orch/itis testicle/inflamed
-OREXIA appetite
an/orexia without/appetite (not hungry)
-ORRHAPHY suturing or repair
neur/orrhaph/y nerve/suturing or repair/procedure of
ORTH/O- straight, normal, correct
ortho/dont/ic straight, normal, correct/teeth/refers to
OS- mouth
trache/os/tom/y windpipe/mouth/cut/process
OSCILL/O- to swing
oscillo/graph to swing/instrument
-OSE sugar
malt/ose malt/sugar
-OSIS condition of or disease
scoli/osis crooked (lateral curve)/condition of or disease
OSMO- smell
an/osm/ia without/smell/refers to
OSTE/O- bone
osteo/path bone/disease
osteo/por/osis bone/cavities (pores)/condition of
-OSTOMY mouth like opening produced by surgery
col/ostomy colon/opening (mouth like formation) procedure
OT/O- ear
ot/itis ear/inflamed
-OTOMY cutting, to cut, cut into
tracheo/tom/y rough (windpipe)/cut into/procedure of
ana/tom/y apart/cutting/procedure of or process of
-OTRIPSY crushing or to crush
neur/otrips/y nerve/crushing or to crush/procedure of (surgical)
litho/tripsy stone/crushing/procedure of (kidney or gall stones 'calculi')
OV/O- egg
ov/ary egg/refer to
ovul/ate egg/state of or process of (producing)
OX/Y- sharp or oxygen molecules
oxy/op/ia sharp/vision/refers to
oxy/gen sharp (mentally)/producing, developing, forming
oxy/gen/ation oxygen (molecules)/development/process of
PACHY- thick
pachy/derm/ia thick/skin/refers to
PALAT/O- palate, plate or plate of the mouth roof
palato/plasty palate (roof of mouth)/repair
palat/oplasty roof of mouth or palate/surgical repair
palat/ine plate of mouth roof (skull bones)/state of
PALL/O- pale or lack of color
pall/or pale or lack of color/one who
PALM/A- palm or palm of hand
palm/ar palm or palm of hand/refer to
PALPAT/O- touching or to touch
palpat/ion touching or to touch/process of
PALPEBRA- eyelid
palpebr/itis eyelid/inflamed
PALPIT- quivering or fluttering
palpit/ation quivering or fluttering (heart)/process of
PALSY slight or moderate paralysis
Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) brain: paralysis
PAN- all, total, complete
pan/dem/ic all, total, complete/people/pertain to
pan/creat/itis all/flesh/inflamed
PAPILLA- nipple
papill/ary nipple/state of or refer to
PARA- near, beside, beyond, around, similar, abnormal
para/thyr/oid near/shield shaped/resembling
-PARESIS paralysis
hemi/pare/sis half/paralysis (slight)/condition of
PARIET/O- wall or partition
pariet/al wall or partition/refer to (skull bone)
PART/O- birth or labor
post/part/um after/birth or labor/refers to
PATELL/O- little dish or knee cap
patell/ar little dish (knee cap)/refer to
PATH/O- disease
path/o/log/y disease/science of or study of/process of
PAUS/O- stoppage
meno/paus/al monthly/stoppage/refers to
PECT/O- chest
pector/al chest (anterior breast area)/refer to
PED- foot or feet
ped/al foot or feet/refer to
PEDI- child
ped/iatrics child/treat
ped/ia/tric/ian child/treats or cures/one who
pediculo/sis lice (head, body or pubic)/condition of
PELI- purple
peli/osis purple/condition of
PELL- skin
pell/agra skin/rough or painful
PELVI/O- base, basin, pelvis
pelv/ic base, basin, pelvis/refers to
PEN/O- tail, organ of copulation, penis
pen/itis penis/inflamed
-PENIA decrease in number
leuko/cyto/penia white (WBC's)/cells/decrease in number
PENT/A- five
pent/agon five/walls
penta/dactyl five (normal)/fingers and toes on each limb
PEPS/O- digestion
dys/peps/ia difficult or painful/digestion/refers to
PER- through
per/cutane/ous through/skin/state of
per/meate through/opening
PERI- around
peri/cardi/um around/heart/refers to
peri/stal/sis around/to clasp and compress/condition
PERINE/O- base or floor
perin/eal base or floor/refers to
PERITON/E- that which holds the lower viscera
peritone/um that which holds the lower organs/refers to
periton/itis membrane holding lower viscera or organs and structures/inflammation
PERONEO- pin or concerning the lower outside leg bone
perone/al pin or concerning the lower outside leg bone/refers to
perone/us pin/refers to
PES foot
tali/pes ankle/foot
PETECH/I- small
petech/ial small/refers to
PETIT little illness
petit mal little illness/bad
PETRO- rock, stone, hard
petro/derma rock, stone, hard/skin
osteo/petr/osis bone/stone-like/condition
PHAGO- eat, eating, perverse appetite
phago/cyto/sis eat, eating, perverse appetite/cells (WBC's)/refers to
PHALANG/O- close knit row (fingers and toes)
a/phalang/ia without/close knit row (fingers and toes)/refers to
PHARMAC/O- drug relationship, to drug, medicine
pharmac/o/log/ist drug or medicine/study of/specialist
PHARYNG/O- throat
pharyng/itis pharynx or throat/inflamed (sore throat)
PHAS/O- speech or speaking
dys/phas/ia difficult or faulty/speech or speaking/refers to
-PHASE stage
meta/phase change/stage or an appearance
-PHERESIS withdrawal or to separate
hemato/pheresis blood/to separate
-PHILE love of, to love, love for
eosino/phil/ia rose red (WBC staining)/love of/refers to
PHIM/O- to muzzle or muzzling
phim/osis to muzzle or muzzling/condition of
PHLEB/O- vein
phleb/itis vein/inflamed
phleb/o/tom/ist vein/cut/specialist (draws blood)
PHOB/O- fear
hydro/phob/ia water/fear (rabies)/refers to
PHOC/O- seal
phoco/mel/ia seal/limbs/refers to
PHON/O- voice or sound
dys/phon/ia faulty or difficult/voice or sound/refers to
PHOR/O- feeling (mental)
eu/phor/ia good/feeling (mental)/refers to
-PHORESIS migration, transport, move or carry
a/phoresis no or lack of/migration, transportation, movement
hemo/phoresis blood/carrying, migration, transmitting
chema/phoresis chemical/not moving
epi/phoresis above/to carry or bear
PHOT/O- light
photo/graphy light/process of recording with device
photo/phobia light/fear of
PHRAG/O- wall or partition
dia/phragm across or through/wall or partition
PHRASO- speech or talk
a/phras/ia without/speech, talk, unable to understand phrases/refers to
-PHRAXIA stoppage or obstruction
hemo/phrax/ia blood/stoppage or obstruction/refers to
PHREN/O- mind or diaphragm
phren/ia mind (mental disorder)/pertains to
phren/ic (nerve) diaphragm/pertains to
-PHYLAXIS protection or guard
pro/phylaxis before/protection or guard
ana/phylaxis away from/prevention
PHYSI/O- function of or nature of
physi/o/log/y function or nature of/science of/process of
-PHYSIS growth or nature of
sym/physis together/growth or nature of
PHYTO- plant
phyto/toxin plant/poison
PIA- gentle
pia mater soft or gentle: mother
PIL/O- hair
pil/oma hair/swelling or tumor-like
PINN/A- feather or feather like
pinna/form feather like/shape
PITUIT/O- phlegm or glue like mucus
pituit/ary phlegm or glue like mucus/refer to
PITYR/I- bran (cereal like scales on skin)
pityri/asis bran (cereal like scales on skin)/refers to
placent/itis cake/inflamed
-PLAKIA plate or plate-like
leuko/plakia white/plate
PLAN/O- flat or a plain
plan/us pes plan/us
PLANT/O- sole of foot
plant/ar sole of the foot/refer to
PLAS- growth, development, formation
hyper/plas/ia excessive/growth, development, formation/pertains to
-PLEG/IA paralysis
quadri/plegia four (limbs)/paralysis
para/plegia beyond (lower two limbs)/paralyzed
PLEUR/O- side or rib
pleur/itis side or rib/inflamed
-PLEXY paralysis
neuro/plexy nerve/paralysis
-PNEA breathe or breathing
a/pnea without or lack of/breathe or breathing
PNEUM/O- lung, air, respiration
pneumo/thorax air (within)/chest
-POIE/SIS to make, form, produce
hemato/poie/sis blood (large amount)/to make, form, produce/condition or state of
POIKIL/O- irregular or varied shape
poikilo/cytic irregular or varied shape/cell
POLI/O- gray
polio/myel/itis gray/spinal cord/inflamed
POLLEX- thumb
pollex/ectomy thumb/removal
POLY- many
poly/dipsia many/thirsts (being thirsty)
PONS bridge
POR/O- cavity or passage (porous)
osteo/por/o/sis bone/cavity or passage (porous)/condition of
POST- after or behind
post/part/um after/birth/refers to
poster/ior after or behind/refers to
-POX pits
small pox3tiny/pits
PRAND/I- meal or breakfast
prandi/al meal or breakfast/pertain to
a/prand/ial without/meal/refer to
-PRAX/IA movement or action
pharmaco/prax/ia drug/movement or action/pertain to
myo/prax/is muscle/action/refers to
PRE- before
pre/natal before/birth
PREPUCE foreskin or hood
presby/op/ia old (weak eyes of elderly)/vision/refers to
PRIM/I- first
prim/ary first/refers to
PRO- before
pro/gnosis before/knowledge
pro/phylax/is before/prevention or guard/refers to
PROCT/O- rectum or anus
proct/o/log/ist rectum or anus/science or study of/specialist
PRONE- to bend forward
pronat/ion to bend forward/process of
PROPRI/O- property (nerve stimuli or information)
proprio/ceptor property (nerve stimulation or information)/ones own receives
PROSTAT/O- one who lies before
prostat/ectomy one who lies before/excision (cut out)
PROT/O- first
proto/zoon first/animals
PROXIM/O- close or closest
proxim/al close or closest/refer to
PRUR/I- itch or itching
prur/itis itch/inflamed
PSEUD/O- false
pseudo/membranous false/skin like/state of
PSOAS loin (lumbar)
PSOR/I- to itch
psori/asis to itch/condition of
PSYCH/O- mind
psych/olog/y mind/science of or study of/process of
PTERYG/O- winged
pteryg/oid winged/resembles
-PTOSIS to drop, fall, displace
splanchno/ptosis viscera or organ/to drop, fall, displace
nephro/ptosis kidney/to drop, fall, displace
-PTYSIS spitting or spit
hemo/ptysis blood/spitting or spit
PUB/O- pubis or pubic
pub/ic pubis or pubic/refers to
PULMON/O- lung
pulmon/ary lung/pertains to
PULP/O- solid flesh
pulp/itis solid flesh/inflamed
PUPILL/O- pupil
pupilo/meter pupil/to measure (size of ring shape)
PURPUR/O- purple
purpur/ic purple/refers to
PYEL/O- pelvis or kidney
pyelo/nephr/itis pelvis/of kidney /inflammation
PYKN/O- thick, dense, compact
pykn/emia thick/refers to blood
PYL/O- gatekeeper
pyl/or/ic gatekeeper/one who/refer to
PYO- pus
pyo/gen/ic pus/produce/refers to
PYRET/O- fever
pyret/ic fever 'febrile', heat, fire/refers to
pyreto/gen fever/producing
QUADR/I- four
quadr/ants four/refers to
QUINT/I- five
quintu/plet five/offspring or folds
RADI/O- ray, spoke, X-ray, radio activity
radia/tion ray, spoke, X-ray, radio-activity/process of or state of
rad/ius spoke/refer to
RADIC/O- nerve root or spinal nerve
radicul/itis nerve root/inflammation
RAY- spoke or wave length
RE- again
re/spir/ation again/breath/process of
RECT/O- rectum or straight
recto/clysis rectum or straight/washing out
rectus abdominal muscles straight/belly/muscle
REN/O- kidney
ren/al kidney/pertaining to
RETICUL/O- network
reticul/ation network/process of
RETINA net or net like
Retin/itis net or net like/inflamed
RETR/O- back of, behind, backward, after
retro/cervic/al behind/neck/refers to
retro/grade back of, backward, behind, after/movement
retro/col/ic back of/big intestine/refers to
RHACHI/O- jointed vertebrae, spine, spinal column
rhach/itis jointed vertebrae, spine, spinal column/inflamed
RHEUMAT/O- discharge or flow through
rheumat/oid arthr/itis discharge or flow through/resembles: joint/inflamed
RHIN/O- nose
rhino/plasty nose/repair or plastic surgery (nose job)
rhin/itis nose/inflamed
rhin/o/rrhea nose/running
RHOMB/O- parallelogram or diamond shaped
rhomb/oid muscles parallelogram (diamond shaped)/resembles: muscles
RHYTID/O- wrinkles
rhytid/ectomy wrinkles/plastic surgery to remove wrinkles
rhytido/plasty wrinkles/plastic surgery or repair
RICHETTS/IA rickets like symptoms in joints
ROENT/O- X-ray
roent/gen/ic x-ray/beginning or caused by/refer to
ROTAT/O- to turn or swing around
rotat/or to turn or swing around/one who
-RRHYTHM rhythm or contraction
a/rrhythm lack of or without/rhythm or contraction
RUBE/O- red
rube/osis red/condition of
RUG/A- folds
rug/ae folds/refers to
SACCHAR/O- sugar
sacchar/ide sugar/likeness
SACR/O- saucer or sacred bone
sacr/al saucer or sacred bone/pertaining to
SAGITT/O- arrow or arrow like
mid/sagitt/al middle/like and arrow or arrow-like (cut)/refers to(visual or surgical cut separating body or parts into right and left segments)
SALIV/O- spit
saliv/ation spit (making)/process of saliva/process of (making or producing)
SALPING/O- tube, duct, canal
salping/itis tube, duct, canal/inflamed
SARC/O- fleshy
sarc/oma fleshy/tumor
SCAB/O- to itch
scab/ies to itch/condition of(mite infestation of skin)
SCAPUL/O- shoulder blade
scapul/ectomy shoulder blade/removal (surgical excision)
SCHIZ/O- split or splitting
schizo/phren/ia split/mind/refers to
SCLER/O- hardening
athero/scler/osis yellow fat or porridge/hardening/condition of
scler/itis hard/inflammation
SCOLI/O- crooked or twisted
scoli/osis crooked or twisted (spine)/condition of
-SCOP/E an instrument that examines or views
micro/scop/e small/to view or examine/instrument(process of)
-SCOPY to examine or view
lapro/scop/y abdomen wall or abdominal/to examine or view/procedure of
SCOT/O- darknesss
cot/oma darkness (blind spot)/swelling or tumor (causing
SCROT/O- sac or pouch
scrot/al sac or pouch/refers to
SCURVY to scratch
SEB/O- oil
seb/aceous gland oil/pertains to
SECRETO- separating or to separate
secreat/or separating or to separate/one who
SECT/O- to cut
sect/ion to cut (several times) or to cut apart/procedure of(to section an organ)
SEMI- half
semi/conscious half/aware
SEMIN/O- seed or seed producer
semin/al seed or seed producer/refers to
SENIL/E- old
senil/ity old/state of(mental and/or physical weakness)
SEPT/A- partition or wall
sept/um partition or wall/refers to(wall dividing a space: nose and heart)
SEPT/I- seventh
septi/para seventh/child births or born infants
SEPT/O- poison, infection, decay, putrefy
sept/ic poison/refer to
SIAL/O- saliva or spit
sial/aden/itis saliva or spit/gland/inflammation
hypo/sialo/gogic low/saliva/production
SIDER/O- iron
sidero/cyte iron/cell
SILIC/O- silicon carbon particles
silico/sis silicon carbon particles/refers to
SIN/O- cavity
sin/us cavity/refers to
SINISTR/O- to the left or left
sinistro/card/ia to the left or left/heart/refers to
SKELET/O- dried up or to attach
skelet/al dried up or to attach/refers to
SOLE- the sole of the foot
sole/us sole of foot/refers to
-SOL in solution or solution
aero/sol air/solution
SOM/O- body
psycho/somat/ic mind/body/refer to
SOMN/O- sleep
somni/pathy sleep/disease
SON/O- sounds
ono/gram sound/recording or writing
SPAD/I- to tear
epi/spad/ism upon/to tear/state of
-SPASM involuntary contraction
myo/spasm muscle/sudden involuntary muscle contraction
SPERM/O- sperm
spermo/cide sperm/to kill
SPHER/O- ball, globe, round
spher/o/cyte ball, globe, round/cells
SPHINCT/O- that which binds together
sphinct/er that which binds together or tight (ring like)
SPHYGM/O- pulse
sphygmo/mano/meter pulse/by hand/measurement
SPHYXI/O- pulse or lack of pulse
a/sphyx/ia without/pulse/refers to
SPIN/O- thorn or thorny
spin/al thorn or thorny/refers to
SPIR/O- breathe or breathing
spir/o/meter breathe, breathing/measure
spiro/gram breathing/record
spiro/graph breathing/instrument used to record
splanchn/o/log/y organ (viscera)/study of/process of
SPLEN/O- spleen
splen/o/tom/y spleen (organ)/cut into/procedure of
SPONDYL/O- vertebra
spondyl/itis vertebra/inflamed
SPRAIN to wring out or press out
SQUAM/O- scaly
squam/ous scaly/refers to
-STALSIS to contract
peri/stalsis around/to contract
STAPED/O- stirrup
staped/ectomy stirrup (shape)/excision or removal
STAPHYL/O- grape or grape-like clusters
straphylo/coccus grape or grape-like clusters/berry
-STASIS stoppage, standing, location
hemo/stasis blood/stoppage
homeo/stasis same or equal/standing or location
-STAT to stop or immediately
hemo/stat blood/to stop
-STAXIA dripping or trickling
epi/staxia upon/dripping or trickling
STEAT/O- fat
steato/rrhea fat/flow
STEN/O- narrowing
sten/osis narrowing/condition of
STEREO- three dimensional or solid
stereo/cine/fluoro/graphy three dimensional/motion picture/fluorescence/recording procedure
STERN/O- chest, sternum, or breastbone
stern/al chest, sternum, breastbone/pertain to
STETH/O- chest
stetho/scope chest/to examine
-STOLE contract
sy/stole together/contract
dia/stole between/contraction
STOMAT/O- mouth
stomat/itis mouth/inflamed
STRABISM/O- to squint or squinting
strabism/us to squint or squinting/refers to
STRAIN to draw tight
STRAT/I- layer
strati/form layer/shaped
strat/um basal layer/refers to: base of (skin)
STREPT/O- twisted or twisted chain
strepto/coccus twisted or twisted chain/spheres
STRI/A- stripes or threads
stria/tion stripes or threads/process of
STRICT/O- drawing or binding
strict/ure drawing or binding/state of
STY/E raised
Created by: gcash91