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Digestive System Gr

aliment/o Nourish
an/o Anus
gingiv/o Gums
hem/o Blood
hemat/o Blood
hiat/o Opening
append/o Appendix
bucc/o Cheek
hepat/o Liver
ile/o Ileum
jejun/o Jejunum
labi/o Lip
lingu/o Tongue
lith/o Stone
or/o Mouth
odont/o Tooth
palat/o Palate
proct/o Anus, Rectum
pancreat/o Pancreas
pharyng/o Pharynx
peridont/o Gums
peps/o Digest, Digestion
pyr/o Pylorus of the stomach
rug/o Wrinkle, Fold
stomat/o Mouth of the stomach or organ
sial/o Saliva, Salivary glands
sigmoid/o Sigmoid colon
uvul/o Uvula (little grape)
vill/o Tuft of hair
gastr/o Stomach
gloss/o Tongue
enter/o Small intestine
esophag/o Esophagus
divert/i Turning aside, bypass
dent/i Tooth
dent/o Tooth
decidu/o Falling off, shedding
colon/o Colon, (Large intestine)
col/o Colon (Large intestine)
cyst/o Bladder
cholelith/o Gallstone
cholangi/o Bile Vessel
choledoch/o Bile duct
chol/e Bile
cec/o Cecum
celi/o Abdomen
cheil/o Lip
a-, an- Without
dia- Through, across
per- Through
ultra- Excess, beyond
dys- Bad, Painful, Difficult
endo- Within, in
peri- Around
-emesis Vomit
-iasis Abnormal condition of
-megaly Enlargment
-orexia appetite
-pepsia Digestion
-phagia Swallowing, eating
-prandial Meal
-rrhea Discharge, flow
ABC Aspiration Biopsy Cytology
GERD Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
alk phos Alkaline Phosphate
GI Digestive
HAV Hepatitis A virus
HBV Hepatitis B virus
HCV Hepatitis C virus
HDV Hepatitis D virus
HEV HEpatitis E virus
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
NG Nasogastric
PUD Peptic Ulcer Disease
R/O Rule Out
SGOT Former name for AST
SGPT former name of ALT
GER Gastroesophageal reflux
GBS Gallbladder Series
GB Gallbladder
ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
EGD Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
CT Computed Tomography
BM Bowel Movement
BaE Barium Enema
Ba Barium
ALT Alkaline phosphatase
AST Angiotensin Sensitivity Test
How long is the small intestine 20 feet long. It begins at the pyloric sphincter & extends at the large intestine.
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine Duodenum, Jejunum Ileum,
How long is the Duodenum 10 inches long, it is the uppermost segment of the small intestine
How long is the Jejunum approx 8 feet long
How long is the Ileum 12 feet long
Where is digestion completed In the small inestine, with help of additional enzymes & secretions from the pancreas & liver
What absorbs the nutrients from the chyme The little finger-like projections called villi
How long is the large intestine 5 feet long. It begins at the end of the ileum & extends to the anus
What are the 3 main components of the large intestine the Cecum, Colon, and Rectum
How long is the Cecum The Cecum is the first 2 or 3 inches of the large intestine. It is a small pouch that hangs inferior to the ileocecal valve.
What is projecting downward from the Cecum a worm like structure called the appendix
What are the main functions of the colon To absorb water & minerals & eliminate undigested material.
How is the colon divided Ascending, Transverse, Descending & sigmoid portions
What does the Liver do It produces bile(used in small intestine to emulsify & absorb fats),removes glucose from blood to synthesize glycogen&retain it for later.stores vit B12,A,D,E&K.Destroys/transforms toxic products to less harmful compounds,destroys old red blood cells
What does the Pancreas do It performs endocrine&exocrine functions. As endocrine,it secretes insulin directly into the blood stream to maintain normal blood glucose levels.Exocrine,it produces digestive enzymes that pass into the duodenum through common bile duct.
How is bile drained From the liver through the right hepatic duct & the left hepatic duct
What is an Ulcer A circumscribed open sore, on the skin or mucous membranes within the body.
What are 2 main types of peptic ulcers Gastric ulcers(they develop in the stomach) & duodenal ulcers(which develop in the duodenum)
What is Ulcerative Colitis A chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine & rectum. Inflammation only involves mucosal lining of the colon&affected portion of the colon is uniformly involved with no patches of healthy mucosal tissue evident.
What is a Hernia A protrusion of any organ,tissue,or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
What is an Intestinal Obstruction A partial or complete blockage in the small or large intestine that prevents from forward flow of digestive products.
What are the 2 forms of Intestinal Obstruction Mechanical Blockage*ileus(tumors,scar tissue,intestinal twisting,intestinal telescoping,strangulated hernia,or the presence of foreign bodies).Nonmechanical Blockage*paralytic ileus(peristaltic movement is lacking or absent.
What is a Hemorrhoid An enlarged vein in the mucous membrane of the anal canal.
What is Diverticulosis A condition in which small,blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine&may balloon through the intestinal wall.
BMI Body Mass Index
BM Bowel Movement
LFT Liver Function Test
PE Physical Examination
PTHC Percutaneous Transphatic Cholangeography
stat, STAT Immediately
PMH Past Medical History
RGB Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
a.c Before meals
qAM Every morning
q.d. Every day
q.h. Every hour
q.2h. Every 2hours
q.i.d. Four times a day
q.o.d. Every other day
qPM Every evening
t.i.d. Three times a day
p.r.n. As required
p.o. By mouth
pc, p.c. After meals
NPO, n.p.o. Nothing by mouth
h.s. At bedtime
hs Half Strength
b.i.d. twice a day
How many salivary glands are there and what are they called 3 pairs. Parotid Gland, Sublingual Gland & Submandibular Gland
What are the 4 types of teeth Incisors(8teeth), Canines(4teeth), Cuspids(8teeth), Molars(12teeth)
What is food called after it is chewed up Bolus
What are the 3 sections of the Pharynx called Nasopharynx,Oropharynx,Laryngopharynx
What are the 3 portions of the stomach (Top) Fundus, (Central) Body, (Bottom) Pylorus
What is the condition of the bowl twisting upon itself Volvulus
What is the wavelike muscular contractions that move food through the GI tract Peristalsis
Obstipation Severe constipation
Aerophagia Swallowing Air
Rupturing of the spleen Splenorrhexis
Passage of fat in the feces Steatorrhea
Returning of liquids/food from the stomach to the esophagus or mouth Regurgitation
Mastication The act of chewing
Joining of two hollows structures Anastomosis
Eructation Burping
Destruction of stones using sound waves Lithotripsy
The act of swallowing Deglutition
What is the black tarry stools due to blood in the GI tract Melena
White patches in the mouth or on the tongue Leukoplakia
Gurgling sound as gas passes through the large intestines Boryborygmus
Halitosis Bad breath