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Organic chemistry

IGCSE chemistry, organic chemistry

General formula for alkynes CnH2n-2
General formula for alkenes CnH2n
General formula for alkanes CnH2n+2
CaC2 + 2H2O -> ->Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 (ethyne/acetylene)
Preparing ethyne Water added to calcium carbide. Ethyne burns with a very sooty flame unless in excess oxygen, eg 'oxy acetylene' torches
Preparing ethene in lab Dehydrate ethanol with concentrated H2SO4 (gives poor yield) Ethene is an important industrial gas
Preparing ethene by cracking Cracking saturated hydrocarbons via steam cracking naptha compounds (C4-C12)
Properties alkenes /alkynes Non polar, insoluble in water, low M.p/B.p but increase with size
Sustitution Alkanes with halogens, halogen atoms swap with hydrogen, hydrogen halide gas as a product, requires UV light
C2H6 + Br2 -(UV)> ->C2H5Br + HBr
Complete combustion of alkanes CO2+H2O produced Only in excess of Oxygen
Incomplete combustion Produce CO and/ or C (soot) instead of CO2 Limited oxygen
Properties of alkanes Single covalent bonds, Undergo combustion and substituion reactions, nonpolar(insoluble in water) Low MP/BP (increases with size), Less dense than water(float) Found in natural gas (esp methane, ethan and propane) and crude oil
Isomer Different form of same molecular formula with a different structural formula (blank)
Meth- 1 carbon (blank)
Eth- 2 carbons (blank)
Prop- 3 carbons (blank)
But- 4 carbons (blank)
CH2=CH2 + H2O -(dil. H2SO4/H3PO4)-> ->CH3-CH2-OH Hydration
Functional group The specific arrangement of atoms and/or bonds responsible for the main physical +chemical properties (blank)
Homologous series Family of hydrocarbons with same functional group. Similar chemical + physical properties The main homologoud series' alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
Hydration Adding water to alkene, forms alcohols Catalyst = dilute H2SO4 or H3PO4
Halogenation Adding a halogen to alkene, forms halogenoalkanes (blank)
Testing for unsaturation Bromine water, decolourises from orange/brown to colourless (blank)
Hydrogenation Adding hydrogen to an alkene, forms an alkane Catalyst = nickel or platinum use at 150degrees
CH2=CH2 + H2 -(nickel/platinum)-> ->CH3-CH3 Hydrogenation
CH2=CH2 + Br2 -> CH2BrCH2Br Halogenation
Created by: natxo on 2007-08-27

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