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What do Muscles do They are composed of contractile cells or fibers.They provide movement,contribute to posture,produce body heat& act as a protective covering for internal organs.
What does Fleshy attachment mean Muscle fibers arise directly from bone. These fibers distribute force over wide areas, but are weaker than a fibrous attachment.
What is a fibrous attachment Connective tissue that converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous&distinguishable from the periosteum.
What is it called when connective tissue fibers form a cord or strap a Tendon
What is a ligament A flexible band of fibrous tissue that is highly adapted for resisting strains. A principal mechanical factor that holds bones close together in a synovial joint.
Bones serve as a what A storehouse for minerals, particularly phosphorus & calcium.
Somewhat cube shaped, consist of a core spongy bone Short bones or Cancellous bone (Ex. ankle bones,wrists, and toes)
Bones that cannot be classified as short or long bones because of their complex shapes Irregular bones. (Ex. vertebrae & the bones of the middle ear)
Bones that provide broad surfaces for musclar attachment or protection for internal organs Flat bones. (Ex. Bones of the Skull, Should blades, & Sternum)
Found in the appendages(Extremities) of the body, such as legs, arms, & fingers Long bones.(Parts of the long bones);Diaphysis,the shaft or long main portion which consists of 2compact bones surrounding the medullary cavity.Distal&proximal epiphysis are the 2ends of the bones covered w.articular cartilage&a spongy bone chamber.P
Found in the appendages continued.. Periosteum is a dense, white, fibrous membrane that covers the remaining surface of the bone.
The skeletal system of a human adult consists of how many individual bones 206.
What is the Axial Skeleton divided into 3 major regions; Skull, Rib Cage & Vertebral Column. Provides protection for internal organs.
How many bones does the Cranium have 8. The Frontal bone, Parietal bone, Coronal suture,Occipital bone, 2Temporal bones,Sphenoid bone & the ethmoid bone
ankyl/o Stiffness;Bent;Crooked
arthr/o Joint
kyph/o Humpback
lamin/o Lamina(part of vertabral arch)
lord/o Curve,Swayback
myel/o Bone Marrow;Spinal Cord
orth/o Straight
oste/o Bone
ped/o Foot
Scol/io Crooked,Bent
Thorac/o Chest
acromi/o Acromion(projection of scapula)
brachi/o Arm
calcane/o Calcaneum (heel bone)
carp/o Carpus (wrist bone)
cephal/o Head
cervic/o Neck
clavicul/o Clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o Ribs
crani/o Cranium (skull)
dactyl/o Fingers;Toes
femor/o Femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o Fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
humer/o Humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o Ilium (lateral,flaring portion of hip bone)
ishi/o Ischium (lower portion of hip bone)
lumb/o Loins (lower back)
metacarp/o Metacarpus (hand bones)
metatars/o Metatarus (foot bones)
patell/o Patella (kneecap)
pelv/i Pelvis
pelv/o Pelvis
phalang/o Phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)
pod/o Foot
pub/o Pelvis bone (anterior part of pelvic bone)
radi/o Radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
spondyl/o Vertebrae (backbone)
vertebr/o Vertebrae (backbone)
stern/o Sternum (breastbone)
tibi/o Tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
leiomy/o Smooth muscle (visceral)
muscul/o Muscle
my/o Muscle
rhabd/o Rod-shaped (striated)
rhabdomy/o Rod-shaped (striated) Muscle
chondr/o Cartilage
fasci/o Band, Fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and seperating muscles)
fibr/o Fibrous tissue
synov/o Synovial membrane, Synovial fluid
ten/o Tendon
tend/o Tendon
tendin/o Tendon
-asthenia Weakness, Debility
-blast Embryonic cell
-clasia To break; Surgical Fracture
-clast To break
-desis Binding, Fixation (of a bone or joint)
-malacia Softening
-physis Growth
-porosis Porous
-scopy Visual examination
a- Without, not
dys- Bad, Painful, Difficult
sub- Under, Below
supra- Above, Excessive, Superior
syn- Union, Joined, Together
Ankylosis Stiffening & immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
Claudication Lameness, Limping
Contracture Fibrosis of connective tissue in the ski, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
Crepitation Dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
Electromyography Use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
Exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
Ganglion Cyst Tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
Hemarthrosis Effusion of blood into a joint cavity
Hypotonia Loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
Multiple Myeloma Primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
Osteophyte Bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord also called 'bone spur'
Phantom Limb Perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
Prosthesis Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
Rickets Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called 'rachitis'
Sequestrum Fragment of necrosed bone that has become seperated from surrounding tissue
Spondylolisthesis Any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
Spondylosis Degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
Sprain Tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
Subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation
Talipes Equinovarus Congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called 'clubfoot'
ACL Anterior Cruciate Ligament
AE Above the Elbow
AK Above the Knee
BE Below the Elbow
BK Below the Knee
C1, C2, & so on Firt Cervical vertebra, Second Cervical vertebra, ect.
Ca Calcium;Cancer
CDH Congenital Dislocation of the Hip
CTS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
CT Computed Tomography
DEXA, DXA Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
DJD Degenerative Joint Disease
EMG Electromyography
MS Musculoskeletal
Fx Fracture
NSAIDs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
MG Myasthenia Gravis
ORTH, ortho Orthopedics
P Phosphorus
HD Hip Disarticulation
HNP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus
PCL Posterior Cruciate Ligament
HP Hemipelvectomy
RA Rheumatoid Arthritis
RF Rheumatoid Factor
IS Intracostal Space
ROM Range Of Motion
SD Shoulder Disarticulation
THA Total Hip Arthroplasty
IM Intramuscular
IV Intravenous
KD Knee Disarticulation
THR Total Hip Replacement
TKA Total Knee Arthroplasty
TKR Total Knee Replacement
TRAM Transverse Rectus Abdominis Muscle
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MG Myasthenia Gravis
LS Lumbosacral Spine
L1, L2, and so on First Lumbar vertebra, Second Lumbar vertebra, etc.,
Antagonist Muscle that relaxes to allow movement
Arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space using a needle
BMD Radiographic test to measure bone density
Hypotonia Diminished resistance to passive stretching
Laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
Myelography Radiography of the spinal cord using contrast medium
Open Reduction repair of a fracture with insertion of screw
Pubis Third portion of hip bone; in fron of bladder
Strain Muscular injury resulting from exerting physical force
Sternum Breast Bone
Abduction Moves away from the midline
Supination Turns the palm up
Adduction Moves closer to the midline
Appendage Any body part attached to a main structure
Dorsiflexion Elevates the foot
Extension Increases the angle of a joint
Flexion Decreases the angle of a joint
Hematopoiesis Development of blood cells
Inversion Moves the sole of the foot inward
Kyphosis Humpback
Lordosis Swayback
Plantar Flexion Lowers the foot (points the toes)
Pronation Turns the palm down
Scoliosis Abnormal rounded curvature
Supination Turns the palm up