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Mid-term review

Anatomy study of the structure and form of body parts
Physiology study of body functions
Metabolism all chemical changes within cells considered together
Homeostasis state of balance in which the body's internal environment remains in the normal range
Levels of Organization 7 levels: 1) Chemical 2)Organelle 3) Cellular 4) Tissue 5) Organ 6) System 7) Organism
Feedback Control Loops controls homeostasis; controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems
Negative Feedback Loop opposite, inhibitory, opposes change by creating a response that is opposite in direction to the initial disturbance, most common in the body
Positive Feedback Loop same, stimulatory, often dangerous, amplify/reinforce change
3 basic components of a feedback control loop 1) receptor 2) integrating/control center 3) effector mechanism
Afferent signal traveling towards a particular center or point of reference
Efferent moving away
Characteristics of Life (10) 1)movement 2)growth 3) responsiveness (irritability) 4) reproductioin 5) respiration 6) digestion 7) absorbtion 8) circulation 9) assimilation 10) excretion
Body Regions (blank)
Major Cavities Dorsal, Ventral, and Abdominopelvic
Three Planes of the Body 1) transverse ( t to b) 2) sagittal (s to s) 3) coronal (f to b)
Medial closer to midline
Lateral closer to the side of the body
Distal further from the point of origin
proximal closer to the point of origin
posterior more toward the back of the body
anterior more toward the front of the body
superior above another body part
inferior below another body part
deep far from the surface
superficial close to the surface
4 types of tissues connective, nervous, epithelial, and muscle
Tissue group of cells with a similar structure and function
Epithelial Tissue lack blood vessels, line/cover organs and systems
Functions of a tissue connects, supports, transportation, and defends
Vascular own blood supply
Avascular no blood supply
Classification of epithelial tissue membranous and glandular
Endocrine glad secretes a hormone internally usually into the circulation
exocrine gland secretes its products into ducts opening into an external or internal surface
Three types of exocrine glands merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine
Fibroblast epithelial: star shaped cells that produce fibers
mast cell epithelial: produce heparine (blood thining substance)
macrophage epithelial: engulf bacteria
adipocytes stores energy in fat
bood cells transports materials (red) fights invaders (white)
Types of fibers Collagenous, Reticular, and Elastic
Functions of Skin protection, regulation of body temp, communication, and synthesis/secretion
Layers of Skin Epidermis, Dermis, Basement membrane, Subcutaneous layer, loose adipose tissue
Layers of the epidermis corneum, lucideum, granulosum, spinosum, basal
Layers of the dermis Papillary, reticular
4 Types of Membranes Serous, Cutaneous, Synovial, and Cutaneous
Skin proteins Keratinocytes and Melanocytes
Integumentary system skin, hair, nails and cutaneous glands
skin functions protection, vitamen d production, sensation, and excretion
Created by: sunshine31987