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History CU

History of Early America Exam 1

Mourning War : The family or community of the killed person would have to kill a loved person of the murderer. It is important because it created a self-perpetuating and unending war of revenge between Indians.
Timbuktu Capital of the Songhai Empire. It was the major trading and learning center with 70,000 people, a major university and trading posts.
The Black Death A major plague that wiped out 1/3 of Europe's population. It caused a labor shortage in Europe and forced Europeans to be more creative, such as raising sheep, using water power and inventing the printing press.
Nation-State A political entity in which the nation (everyone of the same ethnicity) and state (country) are in a defined area. Consolidation of Spain with the marriage of Castile and Aragon.
Encomienda Private system of labor, not slavery, in which a encomendero employed Native Americans to do work. It gave the Spanish a labor force since they had a hard time getting their own people to work.
Calvinism : A religion created by John Calvin that believed in the absolute sovereignty of God and predestination. The belief of predestination led some people to believe they could do whatever they wanted and not prepare for heaven.
Joint-Stock Company The early form of capitalism and the start of corporation. Investors bought a share of the company and expected to share in the profits. Made business ventures easier to do with more money, such as colonizing America.
Pocahontas Married John Rolfe and was the daughter of the Indian leader Powhatan. This marriage ends the war and brings peace to the Virginia company.
Courier de Bois "Wood runners", French traders who went into the woods and traded directly with the Native Americans. They traded outside the trading post of Quebec and cut out some of the merchants and middle men.
Patroonships Large areas of land that were run by join-stock companies instead of the government. Encouraged immigration by allowing people to buy land and work on it.
The Pavonia Massacre Dutch soldiers, under William Keift, killed 120 Indians . This united the Algonquian Indians and they retaliated, killing many settlers, forcing them to abandon Pavonia.
Separatists Believed in the separation of church and state, Indian land rights. They were exiled from Massachusetts Bay and founded Providence in 1636.
John Eliot A puritan minister who converted many "praying Indians" and translated the bible to Algonquin. Helped create Natick, a "praying town", consisting of Indians who had converted to Christianity and adopted English lifestyles.
Staple Crop A crop in which the entire economy revolves around. Staple crops were very profitable, easy to produce and lead to population booms with tobacco.
Indentured Servant People contracted to work for a specific period of time, usually 4-7 years, in return for passage to America. Helped solve the labor solution in America because it brought people over who wanted to own their own land, but who could not afford to buy passa
Antinomianism Predestination to the extreme, believed they were not subject to civilian or religious authority. Created an anarchical society and eventually believers were kicked out of New England and founded New Port.
The Toleration Act (1649) Mandated religious toleration for Christians who believed in the Trinity.
Created by: nastars