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NUTRI300 Test 1

Nutrition 300, test 1

Define Nutrition. The science of foods, their substances, and how they are used by the body.
Define Undernutrition. Failing health from longstanding poor dietary intake.
Define RDA. Recommended Dietary Allowance - Intakes of nutrients that fit the needs of almost all people of similar age/gender.
Define AI. Adequate Intake - Established amount less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone.
Define UL. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels - Highest level of daily consumption that has no side effects.
Define DV. Daily Value - Standard nutrient intake values.
Define Calorie. Energy needed to increase 1 litre of water by 1 degree celsius.
Sources of credible nutritional information: - Government health agencies - Reputable consumer groups - Registered Dietician
List 6 components of a research article: 1. Abstract 2. Background 3. Methods 4. Results 5. Discussion 6. References
Name 3 immune system organs: 1. Liver 2. Lymph nodes 3. Thymus
Name 3 immune system cells: 1. Phagocytic 2. B-cell Lymphocytes 3. T-cell Lymphocytes
Name 6 classes of nutrients: 1. Fats 2. Proteins 3. CHO 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water
List 4 energy-yielding nutrients: 1. Protein 2. CHO 3. Fats 4. Alcohol
Name 2 inorganic nutrients: Water and minerals
Name 4 organic nutrients: 1. Fats 2. Proteins 3. CHO 4. Vitamins
List 4 macronutrients: 1. Water 2. Cho 3. Proteins 4. Fats
List 2 micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals
What are the elements of CHO? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
What is the function of CHO? Energy
What are sources of CHO? Grains and legumes
What are the elements of fats? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
What are the functions of fats? Energy, hormones, cell membranes, insulation, etc.
What are sources of fats? Oils, animal products, and nuts
What are the elements of protein? Carbon, Hyrdogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
What are the functions of proteins? Energy, muscles, enzymes, antibodies, etc.
What are sources of protein? Legumes, grains, and animal products
What are the elements of vitamins? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and some Nitrogen and minerals
What are the functions of vitamins? Co-enzymes, antioxidants, and hormones
What are sources of vitamins? All foods
What are the elements of water? Hydrogen and Oxygen
What are the functions of water? Transport nutrients, waste removal, body temperature, lubricant, and chemical reactions
What are sources of water? Water, other drinks, fruits and veggies
What are the elements of minerals? The elements themselves
What are the functions of minerals? Co-enzymes, chemical reactions, bone/teeth strength, blood clotting, oxidation/reduction
What are sources of minerals? All foods
Name 8 functional units of the body: 1. Mouth 2. Esophagus 3. Stomach 4. Liver 5. Pancreas 6. Small intestine 7. Large intestine 8. Anus
Define Tissue. Groups of similar cells working together to perform a similar task.
Define Organ. Group of tissues that perform a specific function.
Define Cell. The living basis for plant and animal organization.
Define Epithelial Tissue and its functions. Definition - Cells that cover the inside and outside of the body's surface. Functions - Absorb nutrients, secrete important substances, and remove waste
Define Connective Tissue and its functions. Definition - Supports and protects body via structures. Functions - Stores fat, produces blood cells
Define Muscle Tissue and its functions. Definition - Relaxes and contracts Functions - Permits movement
Define Nervous Tissue and its functions. Definition - Found in brain and spinal cord Functions - Transmits nerve impulses
Define Sickle Cell Anemia. Genetic disease that creates incorrect red blood cells.
What nutrients should vegetarians focus on? Proteins, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamin B12.
Define lipoprotein. Compound in blood containing core of fat and shell of protein, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
Define Lipoprotein Lipase. Enzyme attached to Endothelial cells.
Define Hydrolsis. When a compound is broken down by water.
Define Condensation. A bond is formed between two molecules by eliminating a smaller molecule.
What are the 3 forms of Motility? 1. Peristaltic waves 2. Segmentation 3. Sphincters
Define Peristaltic Waves. Wave-like muscle contractions that pushes food down the GI tracts for digestion and then absorption.
Define Segmentation. Mixing motion over length of digestive tract.
Define Sphincters. Circular muscles that relax and contract to control flow.
List 3 forms of Absorption. 1. Passive 2. Facilitated 3. Active
Define Passive Diffusion. Material moves from high concentrated to low concentrated area.
Define Facilitate Diffusion. Passive transport via integral proteins.
Define Active Transport. Movement of substance against its concentration gradient.
List factors that predict heart disease. -Diet -Weight -Exercise -Age -Genetics -Gender -Blood Pressure
List effects of low protein intake. -Weight loss -Muscle and fat loss -Growth impairment -Fatty liver
What are 2 complex CHO? Starch and Glycogen
What are 2 simple CHO? -Monosaccharides -Disaccharides
List 3 classifications of Monoaccharides. 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose
List 3 classifications of Disaccharides. 1. Maltose 2. Lactose 3. Sucrose
What is the cause of Ketosis? Incomplete fatty acid oxidation forms too many keytone bodies.
Define Hydrogenation. Addition of Hydrogen to a carbon-carbon bond.
Define Hepatic Portal Vein. Vein that drains the liver.
Define Enterohepatic Circulation. Recycling of compounds between small intenstine and liver.
List 3 categories of fats. 1. Triglycerides 2. Phospholipids 3. Sterols
List 3 groups of protein quality. Complete - animal Incomplete - plant Complementary - combined plants
Created by: whenthefoxgrins