|CLASSIC endocrine... organs ||1.Hypothalamus.
|Assays for measuring hormones ||1.Radioimmunoassay (RIA).
2.Enzyme immunoassay (EIA).
3.Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA).
4.Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA).|
|4 things Hormones regulate ||1.enzyme reactions.
2.Transport of ions.
4.Protein synthesis. |
|What two things mediate the effects of hormones? ||1.Receptors.
2.Half-life of hormone.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Hemocrine ||Hormone is released from cell into a BV.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Paracrine ||Hormone is released from cell and interacts with nearby cells.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Intercrine ||Direct transfer of hormone from cell to cell via GAP JUNCTIONS.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Juxtacrine ||Hormone remains associated with secreting cell's membrane, but interacts with receptors on neighboring cells. |
|Types of hormonal communication: Autocrine ||Hormone is released from cell and interacts with that SAME cell.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Neurocrine ||Hormone produced by neuron.
1.Synaptic: hormone traverses synaptic space.
2.Non-synaptic: Hormone is carried to site via ECF/BL.|
|Types of hormonal communication: Solinocrine ||Hormone released into lumen of ductal system (respiratory, GI, urogenital)|
|Types of hormonal communication: Intracrine ||Uptake of hormonal precursor, intracellular conversion to active hormone which binds to intracellular receptors.|
|4 types of hormones ||1.AA derivatives.
|Process within the cell for the Creation of AA derivative hormones ||1.mRNA binds and creates preprohoromone, takes it to ER.
2.In ER, enzymes convert to inactive prohormone.
3.Prohormone passes from ER to Golgi.
4.Buds off golgi in a secretory vesicle which converts to active hormone.
5.expelled from cell via exocytos|
|What compound are FA derivatives created from? ||Arachidonic acid|
|4 things that regulate hormone release ||1.Nerve activation (Ferguson reflex).
2.Environmental stress (internal: metabolic/osmotic, external: stress).
3.Hormonal stimulation (hypothalamus-pituitary axis).
4.Feedback to endocrine tissue|
|Intracellular Receptors associated with hormonal responses ||1.Cytoplasmic.
|4 types of Plasma Membrane Receptors associated with hormonal responses ||1.G proteins.
|What type of hormones bind to plasma membrane receptors? ||Peptide hormones.
|What type of hormones bind to intracellular receptors? ||Steroid hormones.|
|3 different hormone-hormone interactions ||1.Synergistic (ex: glucose & EPI).
2.Antagonistic (ex: insulin & glucagon).
3.Permissive (ex: steroid priming of hypothalamus/pituitary)|
|5 Factors effecting hormonal effects ||1.Synthesis of hormone.
2.Receptor mediated signal transduction.
5.Rhythm of hormone release|
|Modifications to hormones post-synthesis ||1.Post-transcriptional,
2.Post-translational processing of hormone, 3.Post-secretory extracellular transport of hormone.
|Influences on Receptor mediated signal transduction ||1.Affinity, #, occupancy, desensitization.
2.Secondary messanger components.
3.Degradation of secondary messanger signal factors.|
|Influences on hormone inactivation/clearance ||1.Processing (carrier) bound Vs Free circulating hormone.
2.Metabolic clearance rate.
**the relationship b/w hormone secretion, carrier protein binding, & degradation determines the amt of hormone available to bind to receptors|
|Types of feedback loops ||1.Positive.
3.Complex (stim & Inhib).
4.Long (sec of peripheral gland indirectly affects pituitary sec).
4.Short (Sec of pituitary affect hypothal sec).
5.Ultrashort (Sec from a cell inhibits further sec from that cell).|
|Type of feedback loop: Thyroid hormone inhibits the release of TRH from hypothalamus, therefore decreasing the stimulus to the pituitary gland to release TSH ||LONG.
**Peripheral gland is inhibiting pituitary secretions.|
|type of feedback loop: TSH released from pituitary negatively influences the secretion of TRH from the hypothalamus ||SHORT.
**Pituitary secretions are affecting hypothalmic hormone release.|
|Type of feedback loop: TSH inhibits the release of TSH from thyrotrophs ||ULTRASHORT.
**Hormone feedback to cell of its production or neighboring cell to inhibit secretion of that same hormone.|
|3 different rhythms of hormone release ||1.Circadian: pattern of secretion is every 24hrs (melatonin & ACTH).
2.Ultradian: pattern of secretion is frequent (GH).
3.Infradian: pattern of secretion is >24 period (LH & FSH).|