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Phys3 endocrine sys

Phys3 Overview of the Endocrine system

QuestionAnswer
CLASSIC endocrine... organs 1.Hypothalamus. 2.Pituitary. 3.Pineal gland. 4.Parathyroid glands. 5.Thyroid gland. 6.Adrenal gland. 7.Pancreas. 8.Testes. 9.Ovaries. 10.Placenta.
Assays for measuring hormones 1.Radioimmunoassay (RIA). 2.Enzyme immunoassay (EIA). 3.Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). 4.Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA).
4 things Hormones regulate 1.enzyme reactions. 2.Transport of ions. 3.gene expression. 4.Protein synthesis.
What two things mediate the effects of hormones? 1.Receptors. 2.Half-life of hormone.
Types of hormonal communication: Hemocrine Hormone is released from cell into a BV.
Types of hormonal communication: Paracrine Hormone is released from cell and interacts with nearby cells.
Types of hormonal communication: Intercrine Direct transfer of hormone from cell to cell via GAP JUNCTIONS.
Types of hormonal communication: Juxtacrine Hormone remains associated with secreting cell's membrane, but interacts with receptors on neighboring cells.
Types of hormonal communication: Autocrine Hormone is released from cell and interacts with that SAME cell.
Types of hormonal communication: Neurocrine Hormone produced by neuron. 1.Synaptic: hormone traverses synaptic space. 2.Non-synaptic: Hormone is carried to site via ECF/BL.
Types of hormonal communication: Solinocrine Hormone released into lumen of ductal system (respiratory, GI, urogenital)
Types of hormonal communication: Intracrine Uptake of hormonal precursor, intracellular conversion to active hormone which binds to intracellular receptors.
4 types of hormones 1.AA derivatives. 2.Peptide. 3.Steroid. 4.FA derivatives
Process within the cell for the Creation of AA derivative hormones 1.mRNA binds and creates preprohoromone, takes it to ER. 2.In ER, enzymes convert to inactive prohormone. 3.Prohormone passes from ER to Golgi. 4.Buds off golgi in a secretory vesicle which converts to active hormone. 5.expelled from cell via exocytos
What compound are FA derivatives created from? Arachidonic acid
4 things that regulate hormone release 1.Nerve activation (Ferguson reflex). 2.Environmental stress (internal: metabolic/osmotic, external: stress). 3.Hormonal stimulation (hypothalamus-pituitary axis). 4.Feedback to endocrine tissue
Intracellular Receptors associated with hormonal responses 1.Cytoplasmic. 2.Nuclear.
4 types of Plasma Membrane Receptors associated with hormonal responses 1.G proteins. 2.Tyrosine Kinase. 3.Serine/threonine Kinases. 4.ion Channel.
What type of hormones bind to plasma membrane receptors? Peptide hormones.
What type of hormones bind to intracellular receptors? Steroid hormones.
3 different hormone-hormone interactions 1.Synergistic (ex: glucose & EPI). 2.Antagonistic (ex: insulin & glucagon). 3.Permissive (ex: steroid priming of hypothalamus/pituitary)
5 Factors effecting hormonal effects 1.Synthesis of hormone. 2.Receptor mediated signal transduction. 3.Hormone inactivation/clearance. 4.Feedback systems. 5.Rhythm of hormone release
Modifications to hormones post-synthesis 1.Post-transcriptional, 2.Post-translational processing of hormone, 3.Post-secretory extracellular transport of hormone.
Influences on Receptor mediated signal transduction 1.Affinity, #, occupancy, desensitization. 2.Secondary messanger components. 3.Degradation of secondary messanger signal factors.
Influences on hormone inactivation/clearance 1.Processing (carrier) bound Vs Free circulating hormone. 2.Metabolic clearance rate. **the relationship b/w hormone secretion, carrier protein binding, & degradation determines the amt of hormone available to bind to receptors
Types of feedback loops 1.Positive. 2.Negative. 3.Complex (stim & Inhib). 4.Long (sec of peripheral gland indirectly affects pituitary sec). 4.Short (Sec of pituitary affect hypothal sec). 5.Ultrashort (Sec from a cell inhibits further sec from that cell).
Type of feedback loop: Thyroid hormone inhibits the release of TRH from hypothalamus, therefore decreasing the stimulus to the pituitary gland to release TSH LONG. **Peripheral gland is inhibiting pituitary secretions.
type of feedback loop: TSH released from pituitary negatively influences the secretion of TRH from the hypothalamus SHORT. **Pituitary secretions are affecting hypothalmic hormone release.
Type of feedback loop: TSH inhibits the release of TSH from thyrotrophs ULTRASHORT. **Hormone feedback to cell of its production or neighboring cell to inhibit secretion of that same hormone.
3 different rhythms of hormone release 1.Circadian: pattern of secretion is every 24hrs (melatonin & ACTH). 2.Ultradian: pattern of secretion is frequent (GH). 3.Infradian: pattern of secretion is >24 period (LH & FSH).
Created by: WeeG on 2012-02-27



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