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Marco Polo (1254-1324) Italian trader, he traveled to China and later wrote about his trip. During his time in China, he served as a government official in Kublai Khan's court.
Interest A fee that borrowers pay for the use of someone else's money.
Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464) Italian banker and leader of Florence, he wanted to make Florence the greatest city in the world. His actions helped bring about the Renaissance.
Renaissance The period of "rebirth" and creativity that followed Europe's Middle Ages.
Humanism The study of history, literature, public speaking, and art that led to a new way of thinking in Europe in the late 1300s.
Dante Alighieri Italian Renaissance poet, he wrote The Divine Comedy in the Italian language.
Niccolo Machiavelli Italian writer and politician, he wrote The Prince in which he advised leaders on how to rule.
Perspective A method of showing a three-dimensional scene on a flat surface so that it looks real.
Michaelangelo Italian Renaissance artist, he designed buildings, wrote poetry, and created sculptures and paintings.
Leonardo da Vinci Genius of the Renaissance, he was a painter, sculptor, inventor, engineer, town planner, and mapmaker.
Petrarch Early Italian Renaissance scholar, he wrote about the importance of knowing history.
Johann Gutenberg German printer, he developed a printing press that used movable type.
Christian Humanism The combination of humanist and religious ideas.
Desiderius Erasmus Dutch priest, he published In Praise of Folly in which he criticized corrupt clergy. His criticisms helped inspire the Protestant Reformation.
Albrecht Durer German Renaissance artist, he is famous for his prints and woodcuts.
Miguel de Cervantes Spanish writer, he wrote Don Quixote.
William Shakespeare English Renaissance writer and playwright, he is considered by many to be the greatest English writer of all time.
Reformation A reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church that began in 1517; it resulted in the creation of the Protestant churches.
Indulgence A document given by the pope that excused a person from penalties for sins he of she had committed.
Purgatory In Catholic teaching, a place where souls go [to be cleansed of their sins] before going to heaven
Martin Luther German priest credited with starting the Reformation, he nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic Church to a church door in Wittenburg, Germany.
Protestants A Christian who protested against the Catholic Church.
John Calvin Christian Reformer, he taught about predestination, living good lives, and obeying God's laws.
King Henry VIII King of England, he split with the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England, or Anglican Church.
Catholic Reformation The effort of the late 1500s and 1600s to reform the Catholic Church from within; also called the Counter-Reformation.
Ignatius of Loyola Spanish noble and saint, he founded the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits.
Jesuits Members of a Catholic religious order created to serve the pope and the church.
Francis Xavier Jesuit priest and missionary, he introduced Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.
Huguenots A French Protestant.
Edict of Nantes A decree issued in 1598 by King Henry IV that granted religious freedom in most of France.
Thirty Years' War A series of wars that lasted from 1618 to 1648 that involved many of the countries of Europe.
Congregation An assembly of people who belong to the church.
Federalism The sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government
Scientific Revolution A series of events that led to the birth of modern science; it lasted from about 1540 to 1700.
Science A particular way of gaining knowledge about the natural world and the knowledge gained through the process.
Theory A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
Ptolemy Ancient Greek astronomer and geographer, he studied the skies and made maps of the Mediterranean region.
Rationalist Someone who looks at the world in a reasonable and logical way.
Alchemy A forerunner of chemistry.
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer, his book On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres helped begin the Scientific Revolution.
Tycho Brahe Danish astronomer of the Scientific Revolution, he emphasized the importance of careful observation.
Johannes Kepler German astronomer, he proved that the planets orbit the sun.
Galileo Galilei Italian scientist, he was the first scientist to routinely use experiments to test theories. He was placed on trial for supporting theories that contradicted Church teachings.
Sir Isaac Newton English scientist, he studied and simplified the work of earlier scientists. He identified four laws that explained how the physical world works.
Barometer A scientific instrument that measures air pressure.
Francis Bacon English philosopher, he argued that science could be pursued in a systematic, logical fashion. His ideas helped develop the scientific method.
Rene Descartes French philosopher, he believed that nothing should be accepted as true until proven. His ideas helped develop the scientific method.
Scientific Method A step-by-step method for performing experiments and other scientific research.
Hypothesis A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question.
Classical Referring to the cultures of ancient Greece or Rome.
Affect To change or influence.
Method A way of doing something.
Agreement A decision reached by two or more people or groups.
Logical Reasoned, well thought out.
Procedure A series of steps taken to accomplish a task.
Principles Basic beliefs, rules, or laws.
Created by: 305362oriliwanag