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Histology #3

The Nucleus 8/14/07

perinuclear space the enclosed space between the inner and outer unit membranes of the nucleus
nuclear pore located where the inner and outer nuclear membranes fuse allowing material to be transported in and out of the nucleus
heterochromatin inactive and condensed chromatin that can be seen under light microscopy (basophilic and electron dense)
euchromatin actively transcribing chromatin that is not visible through light microscopy and is only lightly stained under EM
nucleosome structure containing 4 histones and the DNA wrapped around them
solenoid the coiling of nucleosomes results in this structure
histone protein which functions to maintain chromosome structure and gene activity
nucleolus structure within the nucleus where ribosomes are made
nucleolar organizer part of nucleolus that contains the DNA which codes for rRNA (transcription occurs here)
pars fibrosa part of nucleolus where rRNA strands gather
pars granulosa part of the nucleolus where maturing ribosomal subunits are found
nuclear matrix scaffolding with the nucleus composed of composite structure proteins and fibrillar material termed the nucleoskeleton; attached to the fibrous lamina
fibrous lamina protein structure underneath the inner nuclear membrane
nucleolar associate chromatin heterochromatin that is attached to the nucleolus; function unknown
colchicine used to arrest dividing cells in metaphase
Klinefelter's syndrome sex chromosome abnormality; XXY
Barr body inactive X chromosome found in cells with multiple X chromosomes
cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CdKs) phosphorylate selected enzymes involved in the cell cycle
cyclins proteins that activate CdKs by binding them
P53 protein that checks DNA for damage at G1; binds DNA and blocks kinase activity to prevent replication
polyploidy result of mitosis with no cytokinesis; e.g. megakaryocytes
chromosome mosaicism (mixoploidy) cells having a variable number of chromosomes; results from non-disjunction or anaphase lagging during mitosis
necrosis accidental cell death due to microbes, chemicals, etc.
karyolysis disintegration and dissolution of the nucleus; occurs during necrosis
pyknosis irreversible condensation of chromatin; occurs during necrosis
apoptosis programmed cell death; can be triggered by DNA damage
Created by: medevitt