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His. terms; Test 4

was Russia wanting to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire. Crimean War (1853-1856)
"reorganization" period of the Ottoman Empire Tanzimat
group of reformist officers; decided to ally the empire with the Central Powers. Young Turks
prime minister of Piedmont Cavour
NW Italy; went to war with Austria Piedmont
Romantic Republican who campaigned for Italian unification; accepted Piedmont troops Garibaldi
when Victor Emmanuel II was declared king of Italy 1861
under Bismark's leadership and with the strong support of its royal house, Prussia used diplomatic/military means to unify Germany. German Confederation
made himself king of Prussia William I
Prussian pragmatist prime minister; put more trust in power and action than in ideas. Bismark
? Danish War
led to the decisive defeat of Austria; it established Prussia as the only major power among the German states. Austro-Prussian War: Seven Weeks' War
Prussia coaxed France into declaring war; France lost Franco-Prussian War, (1870-1871)
municipal government of France; intended to administer Paris separately from the rest of France. Paris Commune
National Assembly backed into a republican form of government against its will; Third Republic
greatest trauma of the 3rd Republic; found a Frenchman guilty of passing secret info to the Germans; it wasn't true but by then Dreyfus had been exiled. Dreyfus Affair
wrote a newpaper article contending the whole Dreyfus Affair Zola
the newpaper article written by Zola J'accuse
emperor of Hapsburg Francis Joseph
created a federation among the states and provinces of the Hapsburg Empire. October Diploma
also called the Compromise of 1867; transformed the Hapsburg Empire into a dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary. Ausgleich, 1867
Russian tzar; made reforms a big deal Alexander II
Alexander II abolished slavery in Russia abolition of serfdom in Russia, 1861
Russian tzar; not very good for Russia; mainly wanted to turn back his father's reforms Alexander III
amendments accepted by the House of Commons; one being expansion of who could vote; it was a step toward democracy for Britain Second Reform Act, 1867
led the British House of Commons Disraeli
new prime minister of Great Britain Gladstone
established voting by secret ballot in Great Britain Ballot Act of 1872
government of a country or locality by its own citizens. Irish Question: home rule
leader of the Irish movement for a just land settlement and for home rule. Parnell
curbed the power of the Lords in Great Britain House of Lords Act of 1911
French; his belief was positivism (all knowledge is common to physical sciences). Comte
wrote "On the Origin of Species" in 1859*; natural selection Darwin
Darwin's theory that only the fittest species would survive Natural selection
British; most famous advocate of evolution; Social Darwinism Spencer
said best(fittest)society would survive social Darwinism
agreed with Darwinism, but NOT social Darwinism Huxley
attacked Christianity; wrote "The Life of Jesus":Bible doesn't show historical evidence of Jesus Strauss
attacked Christianity by saying that the Earth is much older than Biblical records contend. Lyell
"cultural struggle"; church-state conflict started by Bismark in Germany; in response to perceived threat by Roman Catholic Church Kulturkampf
called together the Frist Vatican Council in 1869**;believed in papal infallibility (pope is always right in faith and morals) Pius IX
Rerum Novarum: defended private prop.,religious edu., and marriage laws. Was big on protection for workers Leo XIII
discovered X-rays Roentgen
explained the course of radiation Rutherford
discovered the radium; awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry Marie Curie
quantum theory of energy Planck
papers on relativity: time and space are a combined continuum. Einstein
presenting life as it is. Realism
examine what makes life as it is; portray w/o sentimentality. Naturalism
reshape life as you want it; criticize morality and middle class. Modernism
focus on social life and activities of middle and lower classes. Impressionism
Monet, Renoir Impressionism artists
focus on form and structure to focus on artistic traditions. Post-impressionism
Cezanne, van Gogh Post-impressionism artists
reduces things to geometric shapes Cubism
Picasso Cubism artist
German philosopher; wanted to probe sources in human life. Nietzche
Austrian Jewish psychoanalysis founder; id, superego,and ego. Freud
drives for sexual gratification or pleasure. id
moral imperatives that culture/society impose on personality. superego
mediates b/t impulsive id and self-denying superego. ego
belief that some people are more superior than others. Racism
French diplomat; thought the white Aryan race had intermarried with inferior races. Gobineau
Englishman; viewed Jews as a major enemy of Europeans. Chamberlain
Herzl's belief that Jews should have their own homeland. Zionism
Created by: cgurg908