|Read vander p2-4 for functions of kidney |
|Cortex of the Kidney ||Granular outer region that contains the glomeruli and tubules.|
|Medulla of the Kidney ||Darker inner region that contains:
2.Parallel arrangement of tubules.
3.small Blood vessels.|
|Medullary pyramids ||the collecting ducts from a large portion of the medulla. Goes from cortex to minor calyces. |
|How are nephrons catagorized? ||by the location of the renal corpuscle in the cortex:
1.Superficial nephron (Only extend into outer medulla).
3.juxtamedullary nephron (extend down into inner medulla).|
|Capillary endothelium in the glomerulus allow passage of everything except? ||1.Blood cells.
3.Large plasma proteins (ex: albumin)|
|Juxtaglomerular apparatus ||1.Extraglomerular matrix: cont w/ smooth muscle cells of afferent and efferent arterioles.
2.Macula densa: specialized epithlium of thick ascending limb where it contacts glomerulus.
3.Granular (juxtaglom) cells: in wall of afferent arteriole.|
|What is the function of the Granular (juxtaglomerular) cells ||Production, storage, & regulation of renin. |
|Are the resistances in the afferent and efferent arterioles High or Low? ||HIGH|
|What does the efferent arteriole turn into? ||it travels deep into the medulla and turns into the hair pin loop called the VASA RECTA|
|Is the pressure in the peritubular capillary high or low? ||LOW.
**good for providing O2 and nutrients and removing waste.|
|Renal Corpuscle consists of ||1.Glomerulus.
3.Bownan's space (this is where fluid filters).|
|3 layers of the Filtration barrier ||1.Capillary endothelium.
2.Glomerular basement membrane.
3.Layer of epithelial podocytes.
**allows fluid movement, restricts protein movement.|
|Filtration slits ||Formed between in the spaces b/w pedicles of podocytes.
**Covered in neg charged glycoproteins so filtration favors + charged solutes. |
|What do mesangial cells secrete and what happens when they contract ||1.Secrete extracellular matrix.
2.DECREASE surface area when they contract.|
|What do macula densa cells detect? ||Salt.
**Contribute to GFR and renin secretion.|
|JGA contributes to control of ||1.RBF & GFR.
|Innervation of the Kidney ||Mostly SNS
**no significant PNS|
|Filtration ||Fluid goes from glomerulus into Bowman's Capsule.|
|Secretion ||Moves from pericapillary, across basolateral then apical membranes to lumen of tubule|
|Reabsorption ||Moves from the tubule lumen, across apical then basolateral membranes back into pericapillary.|
|What does freely filtered mean? ||Substance presents in the filtrate at the same concentration as found in the plasma.
**Protein binding will decrease filtration.|
|Glomerular filtrate ||Fluid that has left the BL and entered bowman's capsule protein free.|
|Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ||VOLUME of filtrate per TIME.
|When do you put a patient on dialysis? ||when GFR drops below 12ml/min|
|Main functions of Proximal tubule ||1.Reabsorbs 2/3 of filtered water, Na, Cl.
2.Reabsorbs all of the organic substances (glucose, aa's).
3.Secretes waste and drugs (penicillin, morphine, urate)|
|Main Function of Loop of henle(thin descending & ascending, thick ascending) ||Allow Na+ and Water movement in order to creat a hyposmotic solution entering the distal convoluted tubule.|
|main function of Distal & Connecting tubules ||Reabsorb additional salt and water.|
|what are the cortical collecting tubules & ducts regulated by? their effects? ||1.Aldosterone: Inc Na+ reabsorption & Inc K+ secretion.
2.ADH: Inc water reabsorption.|
|With aldosterone present, do you have more or less Na+ present in urine? ||LESS|
|With ADH, is urine more concentrated or dilute? ||Concentrated (due to water reabsroption)|
|Organs influencing Hormonal control over the Kidney ||1.Adrenal cortex: aldosterone & cortisol.
2.Adrenal medulla: Epi & NE.
|What effect does Cortisol have on the kidneys? ||Inc GFR b/c it Inc glomerular BF.|
|What does SNS control in the kidenys? ||1.RBF.