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HHS Digestive System

Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms

Mastication mechanical breakdown of food
Halitosis Offensive, or “bad” breath
Deglutition moving to the back of the mouth for swallowing
Papillae rough projections on tongue, contain taste buds
Dysphagia Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
Oral Leukoplakia Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips or cheek caused by irritation
Pharynx Serves as a passageway to the respiratory & GI tracts
Epiglottis covers trachea to keep food out of the trachea during swallowing
Esophagus Tube that leads to the stomach
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
Sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
Pyloric Stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow or food into the small intestine
Regurgitation Backward flowing, the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
Rugae macroscopic longitudinal folds within the mucous membrane of the stomach
Chyme food bolus becomes semiliquid
Eructation Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
Flatus Gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
Peristalsis coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions
Colon absorbs water & minerals & eliminated undigested material
Borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
Colic Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Dyspepsia Epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
Dysentery Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which result in bloody diarrhea
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Symptoms complex marked by abdominal pain & altered bowel function, no cause can be determined
Obstipation Severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
Steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
Appendix the function is unknown
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
Appendectomy Surgical removal of the appendix
Cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
Pancreas lies posterior to the stomach performs endocrine & exocrine functions
Gallbladder a saclike structure on the inferior surface of the liver serves as storage area for bile
Cholelithiasis Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder of common bile duct
Gastroenterology Branch of medicine concerned with digestive diseases
Gastroenterologist The physician who diagnoses and treats digestive disorders
Ulcer is a circumscribed open sore, on the skin or mucous membranes within the body
Peptic Ulcer Disease develops in GI Tract from exposure to hydrochloric acid & pepsin
Ulcerative Colitis Chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine & rectum
Stoma An opening of the bowel through the abdominal wall
Colostomy creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
Endoscopy Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
Hernia a protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall in which it is naturally contained
Inguinal Hernia in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs
Strangulated Hernia when the blood supply to the hernia is cut off
Umbilical Hernia protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel
Diaphragmatic Hernia congenital disorder in which the organs of the abdomen push up through the diaphragm into thorax
Hiatal Hernia lower part of the esophagus & top of stomach slide through an opening in the diaphragm into thorax
Hernioplasty Surgical repair of the hernia
Herniorrhaphy Suture of the abdominal wall to prevent herniation
Intestinal Obstruction partial or complete blockage in the small or large intestine that prevents forward flow of digestive products
Mechanical Obstructions caused by tumors, scars, twisting
Nonmechanical Blockage caused by surgeries, spinal cord lesions
Hemorrhoids Enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal
Hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemorrhoids
Hepatitis an inflammatory condition of the liver, forms range A - E
Diverticulosis a condition in which small, blisterlike pockets (diverticula) develop in the inner lining of the large intestine may balloon through intestinal wall
Diverticulitis when diverticula become inflammed
Gastric Adenocarcinoma from the epithelial mucosal lining of the stomach in the form of a cancerous glandular tumor
Colorectal Cancer arises from the epithelial lining of the large intestine
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Hematemesis Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus