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Digestive System

Chapter 11, page 470

the digestive system is AKA GastroIntestinal(GI) system
or/o, or stomat/o oral cavity (mouth)
Digestion begins in the oral cavity (mouth)
Digestion is the breaking down of food into small parts
oral pertaining to the oral cavity (mouth)
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of the oral cavity (mouth) caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus 1(HSV1) AKA "cold sores or fever blister"
Mechanical digestion involves mastication (chewing)
mastication chewing
bucc/o cheek
buccal pertaining to the cheek
gloss/o or lingu/o tongue
glossectomy surgical removal of the tongue
sublingual pertaining to under the tongue AKA hypoglossal
glossorrhaphy suturing of the tongue
glossopathy disease condition of the tongue
Chemical digestion includes the secretion of 1. saliva 2. HCl (hydrochloric acid)
HCl HyrdoChloric acid
HCl (hydrochloric acid) is found in the stomach
gingiv/o gingiva(e) AKA gum(s)
gingivitis inflammation of the gingivae (gums)
gingivectomy surgical removal of a gingiva (singular)
palat/o hard and soft palate
the hard and soft palate are located in the superior portion of the oral cavity (mouth)
palatitis inflammation of a palate
palatoplasty surgical repair of a palate
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx (throat)
esophag/o esophagus
esophagus is the tube connecting the pharynx(throat) and the stomach
esophagotomy surgical incision of the esophagus
esophagoscope a lighted instrument to view the esophagus
atresia closure
congenital born with it
esophageal atresia a (congenital) closure of the esophagus
gastr/o stomach
stomach is located in the Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastrotomy surgical incision of the stomach
gastrostomy a new or artifical opening in the stomach
gastrectomy surgical removal of the stomach
stomatogastric pertaining to the oral cavity and stomach
gastroscopy the process of viewing the stomach with a lighted instrument
gastrodynia a condition of stomach pain
nasogastric (NG) pertaining to the nose and stomach
esophagogastroplasty surgical repair of the esophagus and stomach
GERD GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease
reflux means regurgitation or backflow
duoden/o duodenum
duodenum is the first (1st) section of the small intestine(small bowel)
EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy (EGD) the process of viewing the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a lighted instrument
jenjun/o jejunum
jejunum is the second (2nd) section of the small instestine (small bowel)
anastomosis joining
jejunojejuno anastomosis a joining of one section of the jejunum to another section of the jejunum
gastrojejunostomy a new or artifical opening between the stomach and jejunum
ile/o ileum
ileum is the third (3rd) section of the small intestine (small bowel)
ileostomy a new or artificial opening into the ileum
enter/o small intestine or small bowel
dysentery a condition of painful small instestine (small bowel)
enterorrhaphy suturing of the small intestine (small bowel)
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and the small intestine (small bowel)
gastroenterologist specialist in the study of the stomach and small intestine (small bowel)
cec/o cecum
cecum is the 1st section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
ileocecal pertaining to the ileum (3rd section of small intestine) and cecum (1st section of large intestine)
appendo/o, appendic/o appendix
the appendix is a finger like projection off the cecum (1st section of large intestine/colon)
the appendix is located in the Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) of the abdomen, more specifically "the right inquinal (iliac) region of the abdomen
appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
the ascending colon is the 2nd section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
the transverse colon is the 3rd section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
the descending colon is the 4th section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon is the 5th section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
sigmoidoscope a lighted instrument to view the sigmoid colon
sigmoidoscopy the process of viewing the sigmoid colon with a lighted instrument
rect/o rectum
the rectum is the 6th section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
rectocele a herniation of the rectum
an/o anus
the anus is the last section of the large intestine (large bowel or colon)
sphincter a ring of muscles that opens and closes
anoplasty surgical repair of the anus
proct/o anus and rectum
proctologist a specialist in the study of the anus and rectum
proctoptosia drooping or sagging of the anus and rectum AKA prolapse of the anus and rectum
-ptosis drooping or sagging
proctoscope a lighted instrument to view the anus and rectum
proctosigmoidoscopy process of viewing the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon with a lighted instrument
col/o or colon/o colon or large instestine or large bowel
colitis inflammation of the colon
Ulcerative Colitis (US) inflammation of the colon and the presence of ulcers
colotomy surgical incision of the colon
colectomy surgical removal of the colon
colonoscope a lighted instrument to view the colon
colonoscopy the process of viewing the colon with a lighted instrument
colostomy a new or artificial opening into the colon
gastroenterocolitis inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon
hepat/o liver
the liver is located in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
the liver is made up of sections called lobes
the liver is responsible for creating bile
the function of bile is to emulsify (emulsification) means to break up fats
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma tumor or mass of the liver
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
chole- bile or gall (by golly)
cyst/o bladder
cholecyst/o gall bladder
The gall bladder is responsible for storing the bile
the gall bladder is located inferior to the liver
choledoch/o bile duct
doch/o duct
a duct (angi/o) is a vessel
bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gall bladder and from the gall bladder to the duodenum (1st section of the small intestine)
choledocholithiasis abnormal condition of a stone(s) in a bile duct
lith/o stone(s)
choledocholithotomy surgical incision of a bile duct to remove a stone
choledocholithectomy surgical removal of a stone from a bile duct
choledocholithotripsy crushing a stone in a bile duct
-tripsy crushing
cholangioma tumor or mass of a bile vessel
cholangiogram a record of a bile vessel
cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
cholecystogram a record of the gall bladder
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of a gall stone(s)
pancreat/o pancreas
the pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric) (-retro means behind)
pancreas creates enzymes that will aid in chemical digestion
bile flows through ducts
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
peritone/o, or abdomin/o, or lapar/o abdomen
peritoneal pertaining to the peritoneum (inside of the abdomen)
peritonitis inflammation of the abdomen
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
abdominoplasty surgical repair of the abdomen
abdominocentesis surgical puncture of the abdomen
laparotomy surgical incision of the abdomen
laparoscope a lighted instrument to view the abdomen
laparoscopy process of viewing the abdomen with a lighted instrument
laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gall bladder using a lighted instrument inserted through an opening in the abdomen
diverticul/o diverticulum(a)
diverticula are blister-like lesions found in the large bowel
diverticulosis abnormal condition of diverticula
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula
diverticulectomy surgical removal of a diverticulum
polyp/o polyp
a polyp is a premalignant lesion that can be found in the large bowel
polyposis abnormal condition of polyp(s)
polypectomy surgical removal of a polyp
adhesion tissue sticking together that should not stick together
stoma a new or artificial opening
dysphagia (g-gag) a condition of difficult or painful swallowing
aphagia (g-gag) a condition of no swallowing
dysphasia (s-speech) a condition of difficult speech
bradypepsia (bradypepsic) a condition of slow digestion
dyspepsia (dyspepsic) a condition of difficult digestion AKA indigestion
herni/o hernia (rupture)
a hernia is a protrusion of an organ through the tissue in which it is normally enclosed AKA a "rupture"
herniorrhaphy suturing of a hernia
hernioplasty surgical repair of a hernia
hiatal hernia herniation of the stomach through the diaphragm
inguinal hernia herniation of the small intestine into the scrotum
umbilical hernia herniation of the small intestine through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus (belly button)
strangulated hernia the hernia occludes the blood supply to the protruding tissue
anorexia (anorexic) a condition of no appetite
halitosis bad breath
eructation (eructate) belching or burphing
dental caries extreme dental (tooth) decay
emesis (emetic) pertaining to vomit(ing)
hemopytsis expectorating blood
hematemesis vomiting blood
ulcer an erosion (wearing away) of the skin or mucous membrane
perforation (perforate) a tear or rip
Upper GastroIntestinal series (UGI) AKA barium swallow
Barium is a radiopaque (contrast) material
radiopaque (contrast) material will illuminate when exposed to X-rays
lower GastroIntestinal series (GI) AKA BArium Enema (BaE or BE)
Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography (ERCP) process of recording the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts using X-rays and a lighted instrument
resection excision (surgical removal)
Endoscopic UltraSound (EUS) process of recording the GastroIntestinal (GI) tract using sound waves and a lighted instrument
peristalsis (peristaltic) pertaining to a wave-like action of the GastroIntestinal (GI) tract forcing contents onward
borborygmos the groaning and gurgling sounds made during peristaltic activity
colic painful spasms of the GastroIntestinal (GI) tract
stool semisolid waste expelled through the anus AKA feces
defecation the act of expelling feces from the body AKA (Bowel Movement) BM
a normal BM (bowel movement) is brown and formed
flatus or flatulence gas expelled through the anus
diarrhea loose watery stools
constipation difficult defecation
impaction an accumulation of feces in the bowel
ileus a bowel obstruction
obstipation constipation caused by a bowel obstruction (ileus)
melena (melanotic) pertaining to black, tarry, pungent stools indicative of blood in the fecal matter
pungent a very strong aroma (aromatic)
Hemoccult, Hema-Check, Colo-Rect, Hematest, Seracult, or guaiac a test for occult blood in the stool
Occult means hidden blood that cannot be seen with the naked eye
gastric lavage washing out the stomach AKA "pumping out the stomach"
gavage a feeding tube
distend (distended) to stretch out or inflate
cirrhosis a chronic degeneration of liver cells
jaundice a yellowish-orangish dicoloration of the skin and/or sclera AKA icterus (icteric)
Jaundice (icterus) is caused by a destruction of erythrocytes called hemolysis
Dead, broken up erythrocytes are called bilirubin
hyperbilirubinemia a blood condition of excessive bilirubin
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
absorb (absorption) movement of nutrients into the bloodstream
postprandial pertaining to after meals
enzyme(s) chemical catalyst(s)
chemical catalyst(s) is/are chemical(s) that causes a reaction to occur
N Nausea and Vomiting
BS Blood Sugar, or Bowel Sounds, or Breath Sounds
IBD Inflammatory Bowel Disease
PEG Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
TPN Total Parenteral Nutrition AKA hyperalimentation ("hyperal")
O & P Ova and Parasites
PUD Peptic Ulcer Disease
LFTs Liver Function Tests
LFTs (liver function tests) include: 1. SGOT aka AST 2. SGPT aka ALT 3. ALKaline PHOSphatase (ALK. PHOS.)
Dx diagnosis
Px prognosis
a before
p after
c with
s without
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed