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BIO201 - Final Review 4 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & Labs - C. Nervous System

premotor area frontal
seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning frontal
somatic motor cortex frontal
motor speech area frontal
visual area occipital
taste (gustatory) area parietal
primary sensory cortex parietal
auditory area temporal
language/speech comprehension area temporal
This area is the main visceral control center of the body. hypothalamus
This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience. prefrontal area
The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts. primary motor cortex
A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei. thalamus
Necessary for emotional health; may be neural "debugging." REM
Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep. REM
Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep. Stage 1 sleep
Typified by sleep spindles. Stage 2 sleep
Theta and delta waves begin to appear. Stage 3 sleep
The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels. Stage 4 sleep
The ____ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost. amygdala
The ____ ____ are valvelike and protrue externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood. arachnoid villi
The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ____ ____ of the spinal cord. central canal
____ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness. circadian
The large tract that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ___ ____. corpus callosum
The ____ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. diencephalon
The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ____ ____. pituitary gland
The ___ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII. pons
Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ____ horn. posterior
The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the _____. pyramids
___ memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing. skill
____ ____ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly. sleep apnea
The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ____ ____. substantia nigra
In stage 3 sleep, ____ and delta waves appear. theta
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called gyri
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the Upper Motor Neurons
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the Vestibular Nuclei
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be Lateral Spinothalamic
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alterness of the cerebral cortex is the Reticular Formation
Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of Parkinson's Disease
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the Lateral Sulcus
The __ is probably not directly involved in memory medulla
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the __. thalamus
Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the __. pons
The __ is not a structure of the limbic system. caudate nucleus
A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be __. rubrospinal
The superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the __. hypothalamus
The __ is not a midbrain structure. third ventricle
The subarachnoid space lies between the arachnoid and the __. pia
Outtermost menix covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue. Dura Mater
Innermost menix covering the brain; delicate and highly vascular Pia mater
Structures instrumental in returning cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses. Arachnoid villi
Structure that forms the cerebrospinal fluid Choroid plexus
Middle menhix; like a cobweb in structure arachnoid mater
its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull dura mater
A dural fold that attaches teh cerebrum to the crista galli of the skull falx cerebri
A dural fold separating the cerebrum from the cerebellum Tentorium cerebelli
Forebrain The diencephalon, thalamus,optic chiasma, and hypothalamus
Hindbrain The medulla, pons, and cerebellum
The cerebral hemispheres Forebrain
Site of regulation of body temperature & water balance; most important autonomic center. Hypothalamus
Consciousness depends on the function of this part of the brain. Cerebral hemisphere
Located in the midbrain; contains reflex centers for vision and audition Corpora quadrigemina
Responsible for regulation of posture and coordination of complex muscular movements Cerebellum
Important synapse site for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex Thalamus
Contains autonomic centers regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing, sneezing, and swallowing centers. Medulla oblongata
Large commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum
Fiber tract involved with olfaction Cerebral aquduct
Connects teh third and fourth ventricles Cerebral aqueduct
Encloses the third ventricle Thalamus
The convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase __. surface area
Gray matter is composed of __. Neuron cell bodies
White matter is composed of __. Myelinated fibers
A fiber tract that provides for communication between different parts of the same cerebral hemisphere is called __. An association tract
Fiber tract that carries impulses to/from the cerebrum to the lower CNS areas is called __. A projection tract
The lentiform nucleus along with the amygdaloid and caudate nuclei are collectively called the __. Basal nuclei
Which lobe to find the auditory area? Temporal
Which lobe to find the olfactory area? Temporal
Which lobe to find the primary motor? Frontal
Which lobe for the area visual area? Occipital
Which lobe for the primary sensory area? Parietal
Which lobe for Broca's area? Frontal
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with: Hyperpolarization
Direct-acting neurotransmitters open ion channels to provoke __ responses. Quick
Serotonin is a __ class of neurotransmitter. Indolamine
T/F - Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing. True
T/F - Smells are processed by serial pathways. False
If one incoming impulse causes several outgoing nerve impulses, we know that there is a __ circuit. Diverging
A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over again is a __ circuit. Reverberating
Group __ fibers spreads impulses at up to 1 meter per second. C
When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a __ potential. Generator
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in: The dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
Is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature The hypothalamus
The function of commissures is to connect: Corresponding areas of the two hemispheres.
Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury? Concussion
Carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum Spinocerebellar tracts
The nonspecific ascending pathways: are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
Huntington's disease Has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinson's disease
White matter of the spinal cord contains: Myelinated & unmyelinated nerve fibers
Created by: Ladystorm