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BIO201 - Final Review 3 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & Labs - Nervous Tissue

Which neuron types are most likely multipolar? Motor neuron & interneuron
Which neuron type is unipolar? Sensory neuron
Region of the cell body from which axon originates Axon hillock
Secrets neurotransmitters Axonal terminal
Receptive region of a neuron Dendrite
Insulates the nerve fibers Myelin sheath
Is site of the nucleus & most important metabolic areas Neuronal cell body
May be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron Neurofibril
Essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically Nissl bodies
Impulse generator and transmitter axon
The brain and spinal cord collectively Central Nervous System
Specialized supporting cells in the CNS Neuroglia
Junction or point of close contact between neurons Synapse
A bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS Tract
Neurons serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons Association Neurons
Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves Peripheral Nervous System
Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS Ganglion
Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands efferent neuron
Neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery Afferent neuron
Chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors neurotransmitters
Shrugging the shoulders Accessory XI
Smelling a flower Olfactory I
Raising the eyelids; focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; and pupillary constriction Oculomotor III
Slows the heart; increases teh mobility of the digestive tract Vagus X
Involved in Bell's palsy (facial paralysis) Facial VII
Chewing food Trigeminal V
Listening to music; seasickness Vestibulocochlear VIII
Secretion of saliva; tasting well-seasoned food Facial VII
Involved in "rolling" the eyes (3 nerves) III, IV, VI
Feeling a toothache Trigeminal V
Reading Mad Magazine Optic II
Purely sensory in function (3 nerves) I, II, VIII
T/F - NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated w/erection of the penis. This is false. REM sleep is frequently associated with erection of the penis in adolescent and adult males.
T/F - Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus. True - Deep in postcentral gyrus
T/F - The spinal cord ends a the level of L1. True - Ends at L1
T/F - Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. True - Anterior horn
T/F - Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain. True - CSF does circulate
T/F - A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei. True - Basal Nuclei
T/F - Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons. This is false. Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges.
T/F - NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate. True - 4 Stages
T/F - Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain. True - Midbrain
T/F - The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro. This is false. This is the cerebral aqueduct.
T/F - Skill memories preserve the context in which they are learned. This is false. They do not preserve the circumstances of learning- they are best remembered while doing.
T/F - One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing. True - Located within the medulla oblongata.
T/F - Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia. This is false. Delta waves are a brain wave patttern that can be seen during deep sleep.
T/F - Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other. True - They do cross over.
T/F - Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age. True - They generally do go away.
T/F - The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system. This is false. The RAS is in the reticular formation.
T/F - Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum. This is falase. Commissural fibers form commissures; the largest of which is the corpus callosum.
T/F - One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinson's disease. True - Parkinson's disease can result.
T/F - The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate. This is false. The first obvious sign is the formation of the neural tube.
T/F - Projection fibers in the brain connect the right and left hemispheres. his is false. The commissural fibers connect the right and left hemispheres.
T/F - Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus. This is false. This occurs in the thalamus.
T/F - The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain. True - our emotional brain.
T/F - The terms "fainting" and "syncope" describe the same thing. True - both are a loss of consciousness.
T/F - The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space. true
T/F - The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant. True - for the majority.
Period during which the neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong. absolute refractory period
Called a nerve impulse when transmitted. action potential
The interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions. depolarization
An exceptionally strong stimulus can trigger a response. relative refractory period
The specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability. repolarization
Stimulation of a postsynaptic neuron by many terminals at the same time. spatial summation
An insufficient stimulus. subhreshold stimulus
Numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect. temporal summation
Any stimulus below this intensity will result in no response in a neuron. threshold stimulus
T/F - The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons. True - They wrap around several axons.
T/F - Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. True - automatic responses.
T/F - Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers. True - Motor fibers
T/F - Voltage is always measured between two points and may be called the potential between these two points. True - potential.
T/F - Acetylcholine is not a biogenic amine. True - not a amine
T/F - Neurons in the CNS are organized into functional groups. True - functional groups
T/F - The nodes of Ranvier are found only on myelinated, peripheral neural processes. True - only on myelinated processes.
T/F - A positive feedback cycle is the main force in the generation of graded potentials at receptor ends. his is false. Positive feedback occurs after depolarization begins.
T/F - Large-diameter nerve fibers conduct impulses much faster than small-diameter fibers. True - Thicker is faster.
T/F - Sensory neurons have long dendrites, while motor neurons have long axons. True
T/F - A graded potential that is the result of a neurotransmitter released into the synapse between two neurons is called a postsynaptic potential. True - postsynaptic potential.
T/F - Strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase. his is false. As stated in the all-or-none phenomenon, an action potential occurs either completely or it doesn't happen.
T/F - In myelinated axons the voltage-gated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier. True - concentrated at nodes of Ranvier.
T/F - A stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open calcium channels at the presynaptic end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane. True
T/F - The two major classes of graded potentials are transmitter potentials and receptor potentials. This is false. The two classes of graded potentials are generator potentials and post-synaptic potentials.
T/F - Saltatory conduction occurs because of the presence of salt (NaCl) around the neuron. This is false. Saltatory conduction refers to the signal jumping from node to node along the axon.
T/F - The all-or-non phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place. This is false. The all-or-non phenomenon states that the action potential either happens completely or it doesn't happen at all.
T/F - During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative. True - less negative.
T/F - Action potentials can be generated by virtually all cells of the body because all cells possess cell membranes. This is false. Only cells with excitable membranes, such as neurons and muscle cells, can generate action potentials.
T/F - A synapse formed between the axonal ending of one neuron and the cell body of another neuron is called an axosomatic synapse. True - axosomatic synapse
T/F - Enkephalins and endorphins are peptides that act like morphine. True - act like morphine.
T/F - Myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte. True - oligodendrocyte
T/F - If bacteria invaded the CNS tissue, microglia would migrate to the area to engulf and destroy them. True - microglia
T/F - Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system. True - outside the CNS.
T/F - Neurons that are far away from the center of the neuron pool and thata re not easily excited by an incoming stimulus are in the discharge zone. his is false. The periphery of the pool is the facilitated zone.
Created by: Ladystorm on 2007-07-01

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