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Bio110 Chapter 2

Basic Chemistry

The parts of an atom Proton, Neutron, and Electron
Neutrally charged particle of an atom Neutron
Positively charged particle of an atom Proton
Negatively charged particle of an atom Electron
The particles contained in the atom's nucleus Protons and Neutrons
The particles in the outer shell of an atom Electrons
First outer shell of an atom can contain ____ electrons two
The second outer shell of an atom can contain ____ electrons eight
The third outer shell of an atom can contain ____ electrons eight
Non-ion atoms are _________ charged neutrally
Atomic number is equal to the number of protons
Atomic weight is the average mass of protons + neutrons
Substances made up of one type of atom is called an element
Two or more atoms bonded together is called a Molecule
H stands for Hydrogen
C stands for Carbon
N stands for Nitrogen
O stands for Oxygen
Na stands for Sodium
Mg stands for Magnesium
K stands for Potassium
Ca stands for Calcium
Cu stands for Copper
Zn stands for Zinc
P stands for Phosphorus
S stands for Sulfur
Cl stands for Chlorine
Fe stands for Iron
I stands for Iodine
The connection of two or more atoms is called a Bond
A force or attraction between positive and negative electrical charges that keeps two or more atoms closely associated with each other to form a molecule Chemical Bond
A bond formed by sharing electrons Covalent Bond
A bond formed by the loss of one or more electrons by one atom and the gain of the electrons by another atom Ionic Bond
A charged atom is called- an Ion
Ions with a positive charge Cations
Ions with a negative charge anions
An aqueous solution is Water
The break up of molecules in an aqueous solution is called Ionization
Ionization is also called Dissociation
A covalent bond formed between two atoms of sulfur Disulfide Bond
When Hydrogen is covalently bonded to another atom it has a slightly positive charge allowing it to form __________bonds Hydrogen Bonds
The chemical reaction that requires energy and bonds molecules to one another to make a new compound Synthesis
The chemical reaction that breaks bonds and releases energy is called Decomposition
Water is considered a solvent because Solutes dissociate in water
A lubricant reduces Friction
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) Water within cells
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Water outside the cell
Water found in blood vessels is called Plasma
Water found in Lymphatic vessels is called Lymph
Interstitial Fluid Water found between cells
Synovial Fluid, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Aqueous Humor are all examples of Specialized Fluids
The biological useful energy that is released by the reactions of cell respiration is called ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
This element is important in cell respiration Oxygen
The waste product of cell respiration Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Energy production within cells is called Cell Respiration
The necessary substances needed in very small amounts in the body are called Trace Elements
A substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions in water Acid
A substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions in water Base (Alkaline)
Has the effect of increasing OH- ions in water Base (Alkaline)
pH stands for Parts Hydrogen
This number is neutral on the pH scale Seven
The numbers below seven on the pH scale are considered Acids
The numbers above seven on the pH scale are considered Bases or Alkalines
The range of pH for blood is 7.35-7.45
The chemical or pair of chemicals that minimize changes in pH Buffer System
Must contain Carbon AND Hydrogen Organic Compounds
The four major organic compound groups are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates are a main _________ _________ in the body Energy source
Carbohydrates are sugars classified as Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
A monosaccharide are also called Simple sugars such as Glucose, fructose, and galactose. Containing only one sugar carbohydrate
A disaccharide is a _________-sugar carbohydrate Double
A Oligosaccharide contains ___-___ sugars linked by covalent bonds 3-20
Antigens are Markers on cell membranes
A polysaccharide is ____________ sugar molecules Many or Thousands
Starches are glucose storage in Plants
The form of glucose storage in animals is called Glycogen
Fiber is another name for Cellulose
Lipids are also called Fats
The three types of lipids are True fat, phospholipids, and steroids
True fats contain 1, 2, or 3 fatty acids and a __________ molecule Glycerol
A monoglyceride is a glycerol with __ fatty acid One
A Diglyceride is a glycerol with ___ fatty acids Two
A Triglyceride is a glycerol with ___ fatty acids Three
A True fat with all carbons bonded to the maximum number of hydrogens is considered to be A saturated fat
A saturated fat is _______ at room temperature Solid
A saturated fat usually comes from _______ fats Animal
A true fat with one or more carbons double bonded is considered to be Unsaturated
Unsaturated fats are _______ at room temperature Liquid
An unsaturated fat usually comes from _______ fats Plant
An unsaturated fat that is converted to saturated is called Hydrogenated or trans fats
This kind of fat has been linked to atherosclerosis Hydrogenated/trans fats
Diglycerides with a phosphate group attached in the 3rd bonding site are called Phospholipids
Phospholipids are the structural component of the ________ and also in ________ around nerve cells Cell membrane, myelin
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone are examples of Steroids
Steroids are made from Cholesterol
Cholesterol is converted to ________ in the liver Bile salt
Cholesterol is required for your body to produce __________ in the skin with UV light Vitamin D
Amino Acids are what make up Proteins
There are __ amino acids 20
Amino acids are bonded by Peptide bonds
A chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide
Amino acids your body cannot make and therefore must take in are called Essential Amino Acids
Enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, and anitbodies are made of Protein
A protein that has lost its shape/function is said to be Denatured
Proteins are affected by ______ and pH (acidosis) Heat
A protein that is a catalyst is called an Enzyme
A __________ speeds up a reaction without the need for heat Catalyst
What are the 3 nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), and ATP (adenotriphophate)
DNA is a _______ helix strand Double
The bases for DNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and __________ Thymine
Thymine always pairs with Adenine
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
DNA makes up our chromosomes which is our Genetic Code
RNA bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and ________ Uracil
In RNA Adenine bonds with Uracil
ATP contains Adenine, ribose and 3 __________ groups Phosphate
ATP is the basic form of ________ in the body Energy
ATP is made during Cell respiration
RNA is a _______ strand of nucleotides Single
Carbon always forms ________ bonds Covalent
Salts, acids, and bases are all formed by ______ bonds Ionic
Dissociation releases _____ for other reactions Ions
Covalent bonds are not weakened in Aqueous Solutions
The three-dimensional shape of proteins and nucleic acids is maintained by __________ bonds Hydrogen
Water is cohesive due to ______ bonds Hydrogen
A change brought about by the formation (synthesis) or breaking (dissociation) of chemical bonds is called a Chemical Reaction
60%-75% of our bodies is made up of Water
The energy producing process of cells is called cell respiration
Created by: pamela0116