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BIO1130 EXAM #1

Chapters 10 and 11

What are the Special Senses 1. Sight 2. Sound 3. Taste 4. Equilibrium 5. Smell
What are the General Senses 1. Touch, Heat 2. Cold, Pain 3. Nausea, Hunger 4. Thirst, Blance and Pressure
____ Include receptors of skin Cutaneous Senses
_____ Include nausea, hunger, thirst and need to urinate and defecate Visceral Senses
What is the function of the Eyelids Protection and Moisterizing
What is the function of Conjunctiva Transparent Layer Covering your Eye
______ Produces and stores tears and contains Lacrimal Gland and it's Corresponding Ducts Lacrimal Apparatus
What is the funtion of the Lacrimal Gland Secretion of Tears
What is the Function of the Ducts found in the Lacrimal Apparatus Transportation
Black Part of the Eye Cornea
What is the most functional part of the eye Cornea
White Part of the Eye Scleara
What is the Function of the Cornea Transparent Covering that allows passage of light
What is the funtion of the Scleara Fibrous Layer for Structure / Protection
What is the strongest part of the whole body Iris
Colored Part of the Eye Iris
What is the funtion of the Iris Sphincter that conrols the opening (Pupil) where light passes into the eye
Innermost layer of the eye Retina
Highly Vascularized and Pigmented Region of the eye that provides nourishment to the eye Choroid
What are the two types of Cells contained in the Retina (Photopigments) 1. Rods 2. Cones
Active in dim light, black and white vision Rods
Active in bright light, color vision Cones
How many Muscles are responsible for movement of each eye 6
Vision Center is located in Occipital Lobe of the Brain
Inflammation of membrane that lines the eye Conjunctivitis
Clounding or Clumping of the lens Cataract
Increased pressure in fluid of the eye, which interferes with optic nerve function Glaucoma
How does the vision gradually Deteriorate in Glaucoma Peripheral Vision is Reduced FIRST, Tunnel Vision Develops
Damage to Retina Retinopathy
What can cause Retinopathy systemic Diseases like Hypertention or DM
Abnormalities in eyey's ability to focus Refractive Errors
Farsightedness Hyperopia
Nearsigntedness Myopia
Farsightedness means objects _____ appear Blurred Up close
Nearsightdness means objects ____ appear Blurred At a Distance
Presbyopia Farsightdness that occurs with age
Treatments for refractive errors 1. Glasses 2. Contact Lenses 3. Surgical Techniques
RK Radical Keratomy
Radical Keratopmy Makes Incisions around cornea to reshape eyes
LASIK Laser-Assited Keratoileusis
Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis Lasers used to reshape corneal Tissue
Amblyopia is also known as Lazy Eye
When does Lazy Eye Occur In Childhood
Nyctalopia Difficulty seeing at night or in dim light
Alteration in Shape of Cornea in which it becomes more oblong or football shaped than spherical; usually hereditary but can result from eye injury Astigmatism
Medical Term for Dry Eye Syndrome Xeropthalmia
Chronic lack of eye lubrication and moisture due to lack of tear production Dry Eye Syndrome / Xeropthalmia
This is the last stage of sleep and can be measured in sleep studies to help diagnose sleep disorders REM
REM Rapid Eye Movement
What are the parts of the Ear 1. External Ear 2. Middle Ear 3. Internal Ear, or labyrinth
External Ear starts with ____ and Ends with _____ Pinna; Tympanic Membrane
Function of External Ear Conduction of Sound
External Ear contains Cerumen / Ear Wax
Middle Ear Starts with _____ and ends with _____ Tympanic Membrane; Oval Window
Middle Ear contains 3 bones / ossicles 1. Malleus 2. Incus 3. Stapes
Fucntion of the bones in the middle ear Amplification X 22
In addition to the bones, the Middle Ear contains the Opening for Eustachian Tube
Inner Ear contains 3 spperate Hollow Maze (bony Labyrinth) 1. Chochlea 2. Vestibule Chamber 3. Semicircular Canals
Function of Cochlea Hearing
Function of Vestibule Chamber Balance
Function of Semicircular Canals Balance and Equilibrium
Vestibular and Cochlear Componet Combine together to form Vestibulo-Cochlear Neve (8th Cranial Nerve)
Types of Hearing / Conduction 1. Air Conduction 2. Bone Conduction 3. Sensorineural Conduction
The liver breaks down glycogen into _____ Glucose
______ is due to a decrease in insulin secreation or decreased sensitivity to insulin Diabetes Mellitus
_____ hormone stimulates tissue growth Growth
The pancreas secretes _____ and _____ Insulin and Glucose
The _____ gland secretes thyroxine Thyroid
Chemical Messengers released by endocrine glands are called _____ hormones
_____ moves calcium into bones Calcitonin
____ feedback increases the magnitude of change Positive
The ideal value for a body characteristic is called a _____ Set Point
The hormone that decreases urination is ______ hormone Anti-Diuretic
_______ Hormone stimulates sperm production Lutenizing
Uterine contractions are increased by the hormone _____ Oxytocin
The _____ gland is located in the upper thorax Thymus
______ tissue uses gluclose from blood to form fat Adipose
The ______ within the brian controls temperature Hypothalamus
Many organs can secrete hormones and therefore have ______ - like functions Endocrine
Addison's disease is caused by insufficient production of ____ corticosteroids Adrenal
Appropriate blood glucose levels are vital for cellular _____ Respiration
If GH secretion is insufficient during childhood, children do not grow to the standard height. This is a type of _____ Dwarfism
If stress becomes chronic, the secretion of ______ and cortisol becomes pathological Epinephrine
Hypopituitarism causes loss of any or all anterior ______ hormones, including ACTH, GH, LH, and TSH, causing a variety of symptoms. Pituitary
Stature disorders result in well-below average height (called _____ ) or well-above normal height (called gigantism) Dwarfism
Cushing's syndrome is caused by over-secretion of _____ Cortisol
The adrenal cortex makes dozen of steriod hormones known collectively as ______ adrenocorticosteriods
Glucagon puts glucose into the bloodstream mainly by directing the liver to release stored glucose in the form of _____ Glycogen
The ______ is largely responsible for maintaining blood sugar (glucose)levels at or near a set point Pancreas
The adrenal glands are split into two region: the adrenal cortex, an outer layer, and the _____ the middle of the gland Adrenal Medulla
______ triggers our sleep by peaking at night and causing drowsiness Melatonin
The _____ gland, locatedd in the anterior portion of your neck and is responsible for secreting the hormones thyroxine (t4) and thriiodothyronine (t3), under orders from the pituitary gland Thyroid
If any of the body's dozens of homeostatic values become seriously disrupted, the control systems work to bring them back to set point. This process is called _______ Negative Feedback
One special class of hormones, ____ is particularly powerful because they can bind to sites inside cells by passing eaisly through the target cell membrane Steriods
The male gonad is responsible for secreting the hormone ____ Testosterone
_______ , the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, is also an autoimmune disorder Graves Disease
Diabetes insipidus is typically caused by an underproduction of ADH due to noncancerous _____ tumors Pituitary
Generally, excessive _____ is the only symptom of diabetes insipidus Urination
Hypopituitarism is characterized by the loss of any of all ____ pituitary hormones Anterior
Stature disorders that result in well-below-average height are called _____ dwarfism
Oversecretion of growth hormone (GH) in adults, after bones have stopped growing, causes _____ Acromegaly
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is ______ Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
A common symptom of hyperthyroidism is _____ Grave's Disease
A _____ is the enlargement of the thyroid and can be the result of either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism Goiter
______ is the primary side effect of insulin therapy Hypoglycemia
If not resolved, _____ can progress to cause mental confusion, seizures, coma and even death Hypoglycemia
_____ is caused by insufficient production of adrenal corticosteroids Addison's Disease
______ causes excess cortisol in response to stressors Chronic Stress
____ levels are increased during periods of stress Cortisol
Chronic stress causes both physiological and _____ changes Psychological
The ____ is the colored part of the eye iris
The vitreous humor is in the chamber of the eye ____ the lense behind
The globe-shaped organ of vision is the _____ eyeball
The ____ is the opening through which light passes into the eye Cornea
____ is a disease characterized by increased pressure in the eye Glaucoma
Nearsightedness is called ____ Myopia
Lazy eye is called _____ Amblyopia
If the eye cannot focus on nearby objects, the condition is called _____ or hyperopia Farsightedness
Pinkeye is a medical condition called Conjunctivitis
A clouded lens is called a Cataract
The bones of the middle ear are the Malleus,Incus and ____ Stapes
The _____ is the external part of the ear Auricle (Pinna)
The eardrum is also called the ______ membrane Tympanic
The tube in the middle ear is called the ______ Eustachain Tube
Acute Conjunctivitis is commonly called _____ and is caused by staphlyococcus aureus Pink Eye
Mastoiditis can potentially lead to _____ infections Brain
In glaucoma, peripheral vision is reduced, which eventually progresses to ____ vision and then blindness Tunnel
Otitis Media can perforate the _____ membrane (Eardrum) Tympanic
Red/green color blindness is an x-linked disorder, so more _____ get the condition men
Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the ____ ear and is usually caused by infections and can cause vertigo inner
Motion sickness occurs in response to excessive stimulation of the _____ receptors in the ears propioception
Tinnitus can be caused by some medications, wax buildup, or various disturbances to the _____ nerve Auditory
Hyperopia is when te eye cannot focus properly on _____ objects Close
Chronic conjunctivitis is caused by _____ trachomatis Chlamydia
Tinnitus can occur as a result of chronic exposure to loud ____ noises
The ____ or colored part of the eye helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye iris
The projecting part of the ear which collects and directs sound waves into the autitory canal is called the pinna or ____ External Ear
_____ (farsightedness) occurs when the eye cannot focus properly on nearby objects Hyperopia
The ______ begins the inner ear and carries the amplified vibrations from the tympanic ossicles Oval Window
Continued sensory stimulation causes some sensors to desensitize in an interesting phenomena called _____ Adaptation
Pain receptors are also called ____ Nociceptors
Pain is felt for as long as the stimulus is there that is causing it or unless a person is under ____ Anesthesia
The _____ glands produce tears, spread over the eye surfaces by blinking, which are needed for constant cleansing and lubrication Lacrimal
The sclera contains a specialized portion called the _____ which is trasparent to allow light rays to pass into the eye Cornea
______ is caused by increased pressure in the fluid of the eye, which interferes with optic nerve functioning Claucoma
______ in an inflammation of the membrane that lines the eye characterized by pink or red swollen eyes Conjuctivitis
The acute infective phase of conjunctivits is commonly called Pink Eye
Chronic conjunctivitis is called Trachoma
A _____ is a condition in which the lens loses its flexibility and transparency and light cannot pass through the clouded lens Catarct
_____ is the reduction or loss of central vision in which the peripheral vision is unaffected Macular Degeneration
_____ is the degeneration of the retina, which can cause difficulty seeing at night or in dim light Nyctalopia
______ is an ifection of the ears caused by bacteria and fungi External Otitis
_____ is an acute infection of the middle ear, commonly caused by a bacteria or virus, and is frequently found in infants and young children Otitis Media
_____ is frequently associated with an Upper Respiratory Infection such as the common cold Otitis Media
If left untreated, otitis media can cause a perforation of the ______ or eardrum Tympanic Membrane
_____ is an inflammation of the inner ear and is usually caused by infections Labyrinthitis
_____ is a chronic condition that affects the labyrinth and leads to progressive hearing loss and vertigo Meniere's Disease
____ can be either partial or complete andn is caused by a variety of conditions, ranging from inflammation and scarring of the tympanic membrane to auditory nerve and brain damage Deafness
Clinically, _____ can occur as a result of chronic exposure to loud noises, Meniere's Disease, some medications, wax build-up, or various disturbances to the auditory nerve Tinnitus
Pineal Gland secretes what hormone Melatonin
What does Melatonin control Sleep and Wake
What does Hypothalamus produce ADH and Oxytocin
Hypothalamus secretes What Regulatory Hormones
What does Hypothalamus Effect Controls Pituitary Hormone Levels
What are the two types of the Pituitary Gland Anterior and Posterior
What hormone does the Posterior Pituitary release Oxytocin and ADH
What does Pituitary effect Controls other endocrine organs
Parathyroid Gland releases what hormone Parathyroid Hormone
What does the Parathyroid Gland control Calcium Homeostasis
Where are parathyroid glands located either side of the thyroid
What are the sections of the Adrenal Gland Medulla and Cortex
Inner part of the Adrenal Gland Medulla
Outer part of the Adrenal Gland Cortex
What hormone does the Medulla release Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
What hormone does the Cortex release Cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone, and aldoslerone
What hormone does the Thyroid Gland release 3 Throxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and Calcitonin (CT)
Where are the Adrenal Glands located Top of the Kidney
What hormone does the Thymus release Thymosin
Who has a Thymus Children
What is the function of Thymus Fight Infection; Immunity
What hormone does the pancreas release Insulin and Glucogon
What is the function of the pancreas Maintain Blood Sugar Level
What are the Female Gonads Ovaries
What hormone does the Ovaries release Estrogen and Progesterone
What are the Male Gonads Testes
What hormone do Testes released Androgens
Series of organs in body that secrete chemical messengers into blood stream Endocrine System
Glands (like Sweat Glands) that secrete out of the body, but are not part of endocrine system that secrete into the body Exocrine Glands
Chemical Messengers released by endocrine glands are called Hormones
Powerful hormones that can bind INSIDE cells Steroids
Class of hormones that directly affect the brain Epinephrine
If any body characteristic becomes seriously abnormal, control systems work to bring it back to set-point via Negative Feedback
When a body characteristic changes, this increases the magnitude of change Positive Feedback
Control by Three-Tier Mechanism 1. Nervous System 2. Hormonal Control 3. Humeral Control
Uterine Contraction is an example of what Positive Feedback Mechanism
Control by Nervous System Nervous System
Release of Adrenaline is an example of what kind of control Nervous System
Other Hormones Control secretion of main hormone Hormonal Control
Release of thyroid hormone controlled by hypothalamus is an example of what kind of control Hormonal Control
Control of hormone levels by blood chemistry Humoral control
Insulin secretion depending on blood glucose level is an example of what kind of control Humoral Control
What Gland is known as the "Master Gland" Pituitary Gland
ADH Anti Diuretic Hormone
What does ADH Decrease Urination
What does Alcohol and Caffeine do to ADH Turn Off ADH Production
DI Diabetes Insipidus
Condition caused by under-production of ADH Diabetes Insipidus (DI)
Primary Symptom of DI Excessive Urination
This is important in maintaining uterine contractions during labor and is involved in milk production in nursing mothers Oxytocin
GH Growth Hormone
LH Luteniinzing Hormone
FSH Follicular Stimulating Hormone
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
MSH Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
PRL Prolactin
ACTH Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
What disease is caused by excess cortisol, usually due to benign pituitary tumor Cushing’s Disease
Obesity, easy bruising, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and depression are all symptoms of what Disease Cushing's
In Children, increased GH release leads to increased height. This is called Gigantism
In Adults, increased GH release leads to big hands, legs, tongue, Jaw and forehead. This is called Acromegaly
Growth Hormone Deficiency is a cause of what Dwarfism
Where is the Thyroid Gland Located Anterior Portion of the Neck
Condition characterized by deficient thyroid hormones Hypothyroidism
Fatigue, feeling Cold, dry skin, constipation, wt gain, depression, and sexual dysfunction are all symptoms of what Hypothyroidism
Autoimmune Hypothyroidism, commonly in females Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Condition characterized by overproduction of thyroid hormones Hyperthyroidism
Irritability, Feeling Hot, most skin, diarrhea, wt. loss, anxiety and nervousness and Infertile are all symptoms of what Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism due to autoimmune attack on thyroid. Graves’ Disease
Bulging Eye is a common finding in what Grave’s Disease
Where is the Thymus Gland Located Upper Thorax
Where is the Pinal gland found within diencephalon of brain
What type of diabetes is Early Onset Type I
Which Tpe of Diabetes is Insulin Dependent (IDDM) Type I
Which type of diabetes is Late Onset Type II
Which type of Diabetes is Non-Insulin Dependent (NIDDM) Type II
The only treatment for Type I Diabetes is Insulin
What treatment is recommended for Type II diabetes 1. Exercise 2. Oral Meds 3. Insulin
Characterized by insufficient production of adrenal corticosteroids Addison's Disease
What is the Primary Hormone to cope with Stress Cortisol
What is increased in Cushing's Disease Cortisol
The Vision Center is located in _______ of the brain, crainal nerve associated with vision Optic Nerve Occipital Lobe
Part of the eye that acts like a camera Iris
Olfactory Sense Sense of Smell
Tactile Sense Sense of Touch
"Commander in Chief" Hypothalamus
"Master Gland" Pituitary Gland
"Master Drug" Steroids
_____ is used in treatment of inflammation, organ rejection, immune disorders Steriods like Prednisone
What is the 5th sense of taste Umami
Taste for Glutamates Umami
______ are a class of steriod molecules that cause large increases in muscle mass when compared to working out without steriods Anabolic Steriods
____ is sense of body orientation Propinoception
Ability to point to a body part with eyes closed; ability to know arm is raised without seeing it is an example of what Propinoception
Created by: iamamandataylor on 2012-01-27

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