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Lecture 1

How healing has developed from prehistory to the modern day

Beginning of earth was how many years ago? 4.5 billion years ago
Prehistory refers to the period of time before written records.
History study of the human past through written records
First writing developed where? Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China
When did first writing develop? 5,500 years ago
Prehistory-the stone age are subdivided into 3 ages, these are... Paleolithic Age, Mesolithic Age, Neolithic Age
Paleolithic age period is 2,600,000 ~ 12,000 years ago.
Mesolithic age period is 12,000 ~ 9,000 years ago
Neolithic age period is 9,000 years ago
Where did humans first evolve? Africa, and then from Africa spread to the rest of the world.
What did paleolithic people engage in? hunting and gathering
Where did paleolithic people live? Caves and hides of animals they have hunted as primitive tents.
What/who did paleolithic people worship? Nature - rain, thunder, sunshine etc.
What developed in the Mesolithic age? Started using basket weaving and made baskets more complex social life structures - high intellectual activities worshiped their ancestors and buried their dead. had so called priests involved in primitive types of religion.
What is a Nomad? A nomad is someone who travels place to place in order to find new hunting grounds and to gather various fruits, nuts and plants from the environment.
What developed in the Neolithic age? Discovered pottery Learnt how to domesticate and raise animals Started fishing Cultivate various crops Lived in larger settlements - farmsteads Had chiefs that ran the villages Discovered various sanctuaries that were important for them in their rel
What is the cycle period of ice age with warmer periods? Every 10,000 ~ 12,000 years.
What did climate change cause for humans? Cause species extinction, hence they started a nomadic lifestyle.
What are some animals our ancestors hunted? mastodon (mammoth) 34,000,000 ~ 11,000 years ago. Aurochs - European wild cattle. European wild goat.
What is a gatherer? Go around the forest planes depending on seasonal availability on various fruits, nuts, herbs and plants that can be used as food.
What is animistic? means they try to represent various spirits that resided in animals, plants and places or even natural phenomena.
What is titamic? means people identify themselves with powerful animals they admired and hunted.
Neolithic times they were significant in... fertility. They were mother - goddess figures that related to the matriarchal site people were in awe of the people in pregnancy and childbirth.
What is the venus figure? What does it stand for? It was the ancient roman goddess of beauty, fertility, sex and love. These figures encouraged fertility in the female population.
Why does the venus figure so plumped? Plumpness ensured fertility and when women became plumped they lay down and a lot of fat tissue ( which is very important for good pregnancy) will allow that pregnancy to continue. So plumpness were equated with fertility.
Who is a shaman? People who officiate animism. A person who is regarded to have access to, and influence in the world of good and evil spirits. Esp among some people of Northern Asia and Northern America.
what does the shaman do to exorcise the evil out of the body? Goes into a trans and act some kind of ritual - utter words, they make predictions and also heal the sick.
What purposes does the clothing of the shaman have? 1.identify the person as a shaman to the rest of the tribe. 2. Identify that person as a magnet that attracts good spirits, or various parts of the dress or head gear may repel evil spirits.
What were the first preventative medicine? The shaman's clothing, masks, feathers are the first sign of preventative medicine. these people wears these things to prevent disease, by preventing the approach of evil spirit.
How is some of the masks of the shaman/medicine men/witch doctors realistic to protect them from disease? The masks were carved out of aromatic woods that may of have some antibiotic activity in it. Also nostrils and mouth parts were often protected so the shaman would not breath in the germs that the patients were exhaling.
When and What was the primitive surgery? Trepanation - occurred world wide in primitve stone age times. cut a hole into the skin and muscle, and bone of the skull until membrane of the brain is reached.
How was herbalism found? Humans saw carnivorous animals would often seek out specific plants to eat in order to cure some complaint. Humans quickly learned to distinguish between harmful and useful plants, including plants that had medicinal effects.
When and How was human language developed? Transmission of knowledge about herbalism orally from generation to generation accompanied the development of human language. (150,000 years ago)
What is empiricism? It means you are depending on your experience. Experience as in whether something is bad or good. "If it works keep on doing it."
What were the people of the world influenced by after the progression of the neolithic age? Metal Working. Bronze came first to 3000 - 1000 years ago, when people started to use copper and bronze to replace the stone weapons and tools. Also discovered potters wheel.
Describe Bronze Age economy. The economy became very strongly agricultural, people started to settle down, it was no longer necessary to depend on environment and gathering food. Sophistication in tools and weapons-crafts and trades started to develop and built ships.
Describe Bronze age society and religion. Complex social and religious structures, the earth goddess and cult was widespread at that time but slowly started to develop into a patriarchal society.
Describe what people discovered in Iron age. People discovered iron and how to take iron ore and how to smelt and made superior metal weapons and tools. As iron tools developed warfare became efficient, made armies, kings and male chiefs. Female started to get subjugated.
Where when did the iceman Otzi live? 5,300 years ago in Europe, in the mountains between Austria and Italy.
When did Arab trade mission in the north east of Africa begin? about 9th century AD.
When did European contact with sub-Saharan Africa begin? 15th century AD.
When did most contact occur in Indigenous Africa and what happened during those times? 18th century onward associated with slavery, when many black people were captured as slaves and taken all over the world and treated cruelly up until the 19th century in some parts of the world.
What was Africa like before 19th century? Africa was very self sufficient and developed very sgnificant cultures. it is surrounded by sea with only limited land bridges. Also natural barriers of mountains and deserts that prevented entry from one side of Africa to another.
Where did the main native population(Saharan) live? Lived in small settlements that survived on the bounty of natural resources available in the jungle, along the coast, on the shore of great lakes or along river systems.
Where did the highly deeloped Africa Indigenous culture develop? Zimbabwe
What is 'Great Zimbabwe'? An extensive stone ruin of an African Iron Age city.
What is Traditional African medicine and what is involved in it? Traditional African medicine is a holistic discipline involving extensive use of indigenous herbalism combined with aspects of African spirituality.
Created by: Malisa