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Nervous System term+

Terminology,abbrevs etc.

Afferent Carry or move inward or toward a central structure
CNS Central Nervous System; network of nervous tissue found in the brain & spinal cord
Efferent Carry or move away from a central structure
Ventricle Chamber or cavity of an organ that receives or holds a fluid
PNS Peripheral Nervous System; All nervous tissue located outside of the spinal column & skull. Consists of 12pairs of cranial nerves&31pairs of spinal nerves.Subdivided into Somatic&Autonomic nervous system.
Nervous system consists of 2 main divisions they are Central nervous system & Peripheral nervous system
The brain has 4 major structures they are Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Brainstem
Cerebrum Largest & uppermost part of the brain.Used for sensory perception,interpretation,language,memory,voluntary movement&emotional aspects of behaviour.Consisting of 2 hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure or groove.
Corpus Callosum joins the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum together, permitting communication between the right & left sides of the brain.
5 lobes Frontal,Parietal,temporal,Occipital & Insula
Gyri Numerous folds or convolutions on the cerebral surface
Sulci Separates the Gyri by furrows or fissures
Cerebral Cortex A thin layer that covers the entire cerebrum and is compose of gray matter.
Cerebellum Second largest structure.All functions of the cerebellum involve movement. Also aids in maintaining equilibrium and balance.
Diencephalon also called interbrain. Composed of many smaller structures,including Thalamus & Hypothalamus.
Thalamus receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory & processes & transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex. receives impulses from the cerebrum & relays them to efferent nerves.
Hypothalamus regulates activities of the Autonomic Nervous System(ANS)including impulses that regulate heartbeat,body temp & fluid balance. Also controls many endocrine functions
Brainstem composed of 3 major structures;Midbrain(Mesencephalon),Medulla,Pons.Pathway for impulse conduction between brain&spinal cord. Origin of 10outof 12 pairs of cranial nerves.Controls respirations,blood pressure&heart rate. Sometimes called the Primary brain.
Midbrain(Mesencephalon) Separates the cerebrum from the brainstem
Medulla Attaches to the spinal cord
Pons connecting the midbrain to the medulla.
Spinal Cord transmits sensory impulses from the body to the brain&motor impulses from the brain to muscles&organs of the body.Within the spinal cavity of the vertebral column.
Ascending tracts Sensory nerve tracts. Direction of impulse is UPWARD.
Descending tracts Motor nerve tracts. Carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs
Meninges Protection for the spinal cord. Dura Mater(outermost covering;brain&spinal cord),Arachnoid(Middle covering),Pia Mater(innermost layer)
Dura Mater Outermost covering of the brain&spinal cord. Tough, fibrous,dense&composed primarily of connective tissue.Due to thickness also called;Pachymeninges.Beneath is a cavity called the subdural space which is filled with serous fluid.
Arachnoid Middle covering. Spider web appearance.Acts as shock absorber. fits loosely over the underlying structures.
Subarachnoid space has cerebrospinal fluid that has protein,glucose,urea,salts&some white blood cells. provides nutritive substances for central nervous system&adds additional protection for the brain&spinal cord.
Pia Mater Innermost covering. Directly adheres to the brain&spinal cord.As it passes over the brain it follows the contours of Gyri&Sulci. Contains blood vessels&lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissues. Pia+Arachnoid=Leptomeninges because they are so thin.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Nerve fibers that transmit sensory info to the brain&spinal cord&nerve fibers that transmit impulses from brain&spinal cord to muscles under conscious or voluntary control such as those for walking & talking.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Nerves that control involuntary movement;digestion,heart contraction&vasoconstriction. Also regulates secretions by glands.Subdivided into Sympathetic&Parasympathetic divisions.
Sympathetic ANS generally produces responses evident in 'fightorflight' situations. responds when immediate action is required. Blood flow increases in skeletal muscles to prepare an individual to either fight or retreat.
Parasympathetic ANS Generally responds when immediate action is not required or threatening situation subsides.
Cranial Nerves originate at the base of the brain&emerge through openings in the base of the skull.May be sensory,motor or mixture of both.
Sensory Nerves Afferent. Receive impulses from the sense organs, eyes,ears,nose,tongue&skin & transmits them to the CNS
Motor Nerves Conduct impulses to muscles & glands. Some cranial nerves are composed of both sensory&motor fibers (mixed nerves ex.facial nerve)
Spinal Nerve Emerge from the intervertabral spaces in the spinal column&exit from the spinal canal between the vertebrae&extend to various parts of the body.Each with2points of attachment to the spinal cord. All 31pairs of spinal nerves are mixed nerves.
Anterior(Ventral) Root Contains motor fibers. This root & the Posterior(Dorsal) Root unite to form the spinal nerve that has both afferent&efferent qualities.
Posterior(Dorsal) Root Contains sensory fibers. This root and the Anterior(Ventral) Root unite to form the spinal nerve that has both afferent&efferent qualities.
cerebr/o Cerebrum
Crani/o Cranium (skull)
Dendr/o Tree
Encephal/o Brain
Gangli/o Ganglion
Gli/o Glue;Neuroglia tissue
Kinesi/o Movement
Lept/o Thin,Slender
Lex/o word,phrase
Mening/o OR Meningi/o Meninges
Myel/o Bone marrow;spinal cord
Narc/o Stupor;numbness;sleep
Neur/o Nerve
Radicul/o Nerve Root
Sthen/o Strength
Thalam/o Thalamus
Thec/o Sheath
Ton/o Tension
Ventricul/o Ventricle
-algesia pain
-algia pain
-asthenia Weakness,debility
-esthesia feeling
-kinesia Movement
-lepsy seizure
-paresis partial paralysis
-phasia Speech
-plegia Paralysis
-taxia Order,Coordination
pachy- Thick
para- Near,Beside,Beyond
Syn- Union,Together,Joined
Uni- One
AD Alzheimer Disease
ADHD Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ICP Intracranial Pressure
LOC Loss Of Consciousness
ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
LP Lumbar Pressure
ANS Autonomic Nervous System
MRA Magnetic Resonance Angiogram
BEAM Brain Electrical Activity Mapping
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
CNS Central Nervous System
MS Multiple Sclerosis
CP Cerebral Palsy
NCV Nerve Conduction Velocity
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
PET Positron Emission Tomography
CT Computed Tomography
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
CVA Cerebrovascular Accident
SNS Sympathetic Nervous System
EEG Ectroencephalography
TIA Transient Ischemic Attack
EMG Electromyography
Agnosia Inability to comprehend auditory,visual,spatial sensations
Herpes Zoster Painful,acute infectious disease; aka shingles
Trephination Circular opening cut into the skull to relieve pressure
Asthenia Weakness,debility or loss of strength
Aura Premonitory awareness of an approaching disorder
Neurosis Non-psychotic mental illness
T4 4th thoracic vertebrae
C1 1st Cervical vertebrae