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Digestive System

What does the Digestive System include? Digestive Tract and Accessory Organs
What other names is the Digestive Tract called? Alimentary Canal or Gastrointestinal Tract
What does the Digestive system include? mouth, pharnyx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines.
What are Accessories to System? teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder & pancreas
List 3 functions of digestive system digestion, absorption & metabolism
What is ingestion? to take in food
What is mechanical digestion? food broken down into smaller particles (chewing) and Churning & mixing actions in stomach
What is chemical digestion? complex molecules of carbs, proteins & fats are transformed by chemical digestion into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by cells.
What is hydrolysis? when chemical digestion uses water to break down the complex molecules
What do digestive enzymes do? speed up the hydrolysis process
What pathway does the food go through? after ingestion & mastication, the food particles move from the mouth into the pharynx and then into esophagus.
Another name for swallowing? deglutition
What are mixing movements? occur in the stomach as a result of smooth muscle contraction. These repetitve contractions mix the food particles with enzymes & other fluids
Peristalsis the movements that propel the food particles through the digestive tract. (rhythmic waves of contractions that move food particles through the various regions in which mechanical & chemical digestion take place.
What is Absorption? food molecules pass through lining of the small intestine into blood
What is Elimination? Elimination of food molecules that cannot be digested
How long is the digestive tract? 9m (30 ft) in length. Extends from mouth to anus
List 4 layers of the Wall of the Digestive Tract Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscular layer (muscularis), Serous Layer or Serosa
What layer is Mucosa the innermost tunic
What is function of Mucosa lines lumen of digestive tract. In certain regions it develops folds. Increases surface area for absorption.
What does Mucosa consist of? epithelium, loose connective tissue, smooth muscle
What does Mucosa secrete? Mucus, digestive enzymes, hormones
What is Submucosa? Thick layer of loose connective tissue
What is Submucosa made up of? Blood & lymphatic vessels. Also contains nerves that form a network called Submucosal Plexus
What is Submucosa's function? carries away absorbed nutrients
What is the function of Submucosal Plexus? Provides autonomic nerve impulses to the muscle layers of digestive tract
List two Muscle Layers (muscularis) Inner Circular Layer and Outer Longitudinal Layer
What is function of Inner Circular Layer? Contraction causes decrease in diameter of the tube
What is function of Outer Longitudinal Layer? contraction causes shortening of the tube
What is Myentric Plexus? Network of automoic nerve fibers between muscle layers
What is function of Myentric Plexus? controls movements and secretions of digestive tract (along with submucosal plexus)
What layer is Serosa or Adventitia Outermost Layer
Where is the Adventitia located? Above the diaphgragm
What is Adventitia composed of? connective tissue
Where is Serosa located? below the diaphgragm
What is Serosa composed of? layer of epithelium covering the connective tissue (visceral peritoneum)
What does serosa secrete? Serous fluid for lubrication which allows abdominal organs to move smoothly against each other
What is function of Mouth? 1. Receives food by ingestion 2. Breaks food into small particles 3. Mixes food with saliva
What is the function of Cheeks? Helps hold food in mouth, keeps food in place for chewing & formation of words for speech. Also provides protection against abrasion from food particles
What are Lips? Folds of skeletal muscle. Covered with a thin transparent epithelium
What is function of lips? They have numerous sensory receptors to determine temperature and texture of foods
Why are lips red? blood vessels underlying the epithelium
What are cheeks made of? Covered by skin & subcutaneous tissue. Lined with mucus membrane (SSE)
What is the Tongue made of? Skeletal muscle
What is the major attachment for tongue? Root. It is anchored by hyoid bone
Where is Frenulum Linguae located? connects tongue to floor of mouth
Where are Papillae located? tiny projections on dorsal surface of tongue
What are functions of Papillae? Provides friction for manipulating food in mouth and contains the taste buds
What is function of lingual tonsils? provides defense against bacteria that enters the mouth
What is function of tongue muscles? manipulates food in mouth for mastication and moves food around
Why does tongue muscle move food around? to mix it with saliva, shape it into a ball-like mass (bolus) and to direct it toward the pharynx for swallowing
How many Primary (deciduous) teeth do you have? 10 teeth in each jaw. So a total of 20
How many Secondary (permanent) teeth do you have? 16 in each jaw. So a total of 32
Describe Incisors chisel-shaped and have sharp edges. Used for biting food
Describe Cuspids (canines) cone-shaped and have points. Used for grasping and tearing food
Describe Bicuspids (premolars) and molars flat surfaces with rounded projections. Used for crushing and grinding food
List 3 parts of a tooth Crown, Root & Neck
What is the Crown? visible portion of the tooth covered by enamel
What is the Root of a tooth? portion embedded in the sockets (alveolar processes) of the mandible and maxilla
What is the Neck of a tooth? Small region in which the crown and root meet. Adjacent to the gingival (or gum)
What is the Pulp Cavity? Central core of tooth
What is Pulp? Consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves
Where is Pulp located? in pulp cavity
Root Canal term used to describe the pulp cavity located in the root of the tooth
Apical Foramen Opening in the root of the tooth for nerves and blood vessels
Dentin surrounds pulp cavity and forms bulk of tooth
What is Cementum? thin layer of calcified connective tissue
What are functions of Cementum? 1. Surrounds dentin in the root of the tooth and 2. Attaches the root to the periodontal ligaments
Periodontal Ligaments firmly anchor root in the alveolar process
Enamel surrounds the dentin in the crown of the tooth
What is the hardest substance in the body? Enamel
What is the largest Salivary glands? Parotid Glands
Where are Parotid Glands located? each side of head: just in front of ear
Where are Submandibular Glands located? in floor of mouth
Where are Sublingual Glands located? Also located in floor of mouth. Anterior to the submandibular glands and under the tongue
What makes up Saliva? water, mucus and amylase (enzyme)
What are functions of Saliva? cleansing action on teeth, moistens and lubes food during mastication and swallowing. Dissolves certain molecules so food can be tasted. Begins chemical digestion of starches
What does Pharynx connect? Connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus
Where are the Palatine Tonsils located? Masses of lymphoid tissue located near the Fauces
Where does the Laryngopharynx open into? Both the esophagus & larynx
What is pathway for food through pharynx? 1. Food forced into pharynx by tongue 2. When food reaches Fauces the sensory receptors intiate swallowing reflex. Then Peristaltic movements propel food from pharynx into esophagus
When eating food what does the Uvula do? Elevates and prevents food from entering nasopharynx
When eating food what does the Epiglottis do? Drops downward and prevents food from entering the larynx. It directs food into esophagus
What is the Esophagus Collapsible muscular tube
What is function of the Esophagus? Passageway for food between pharynx & stomach
Where is Esophagus located? behind the trachea and in front of vertebral column
What is the function of the Esophageal Spincter (cardiac sphincter) controls movement of food between esophagus & stomach
Where is stomach located? Upper Left Quadrant of Abdomen
Where does stomach receive food from? Esophagus
What is the average capacity of the stomach? 1.5 liters
What is the Cardiac Region? Small region around stomach opening from esophagus
What is the Fundus? Most superior Region of stomach
What is function of the Fundus? Balloons above cardiac region to form a temporary storage area
What is the Body of the Stomach? Main portion of the stomach
Stomach curves to the right creating two curvatures. What are they? Lesser Curvature: Concave Greater Curvature: Convex
What is Pyloric Region? narrow region as body approaches the exit from the stomach
What is the function of the Pyloric Spincter? Acts as a valve between the stomach & small intestines
What is the function of the muscular layer in wall of stomach? mixes food with enzymes and other fluids
Where is Rugae located? Longitudinal folds in the wall of the stomach
What is function of Rugae? Allows the stomach to expand
What are Exocrine Gastric Glands composed of? mucous cells, parietal cells and chief cells
What do Exocrine Glands Secrete? Gastric Juices. 2-3 Liters produced daily
What do Mucous Cells secrete? 1. thick and alkaline mucus that forms protective coating for stomach lining and 2. Thin & watery mucus that mixes with food and creates a fluid medium for chemical reactions
What do Parietal Cells secrete? Hydrochloric Acid
What does Hydrochloric Acid do in stomach? Kills bacteria and provides an acidic environment for the action of enzymes in the stomach
What do Chief Cells secrete? What is function of Chief Cells? Pepsinogen. Begins digestion of proteins into polypeptides
What is Pepsinogen? inactive form of the enzyme pepsin
What does Hydrochloric Acid to to Pepsin? Converts inactive pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin. This begins chemical digestion of proteins
What do Endocrine Cells secrete? Gastrin. Which regulates gastric activity
What does Churning action of stomach wall muscles do? Breaks food into smaller sizes and mixes them with gastric juice. This produces Chyme
How does Chyme leave the stomach? through the pyloric sphincter and enters the small intestine
List 3 Regulations of Gastric Secretions 1. Cephalic Phase, 2. Gastric Phase and 3. Intestinal Phase
What does Cephalic Phase do? anticipates food and prepares stomach to receive it
What triggers Cephalic Phase? thinking about food and seeing, smelling or tasting
What happens when impulses are sent through vagus nerve to stomach? causes an increase in the secretion of gastric juice and increases sections of the hormone gastrin
What is pathway of Gastrin? enters blood and circulates back to stomach
When does Gastric Phase begin? when food reaches the stomach. It stimulates reflexes that result in gastrin secretion
What does Gastrin consist of? hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen
What does Hydrochloric Acid do in the Regulation of Gastric Secretions? acidifies stomach contents and activates pepsinogen into pepsin
What does the Intestinal Phase do? regulates entry of chyme into small intestine
What is Intestinal Phase triggered by? passage of cyme through pyloric sphincter into duodenum
What stimulates secretion of intestinal hormones? distention and the presence of acid chyme in duodenum
What happens when Chyme is neutralized and moves away from duodenum? inhibitory responses stop and gastric secretion is again stimulated
As Chyme accumulates what does the pyloric sphincter do? relaxes
how long do fatty foods stay in stomach? 4 to 6 hours
What is function of Small Intestine? finishes process of digestion, absorbs nutrients and passes residue to large intestine
Where is the Small Intestine located? extends from pyloric sphincter to ileocecal valve
What are the plicae circulares? circular folds in the wall of the intestines. They increase surface area for absorption
What are Villi? finger like extensions of the mucosa. They project from the circular folds and further increases the surface area for absorption
Function of each Villus? Surrounds a blood capillary network and a lymph capillary (lacteal) and absorbs nutrients
Where are the intestinal glands located? between the adjacent Villi
List the 3 regions of the small intestine Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum
What is the Duodenum? begins at pyloric sphincter and ends at jejunum. It receives chyme from stomach and receives secretions from liver & pancreas
Jejunum Middle portion of small intestine
Ileum Last portion of small intestine
What is Mesentery extension of peritoneum. Suspends intestines from the abdominal wall
What is Enterokinase enzye that activates a protein-splitting enzyme (trypsinogen) from pancreas
Where does the Large Intestine begin? at ileocecal junction and ends at anus
What are Epiploic Appendages? pieces of fat-filled connective tissue that is attached to outer surface of colon
Where is the Vermiform Appendix attached? to Cecum. It has no function in digestion
What are the functions of the Large Intestine? Absorption of fluid & electrolytes and to eliminate waste
What is the largest gland in body? Liver
Where is the liver located? Right hypochondrian and epigrastric regions of abdomen. Just beneath the diaphragm
How many lobes is the Liver divided into? Two Major Lobes and Two Minor Lobes
Where is the Falciform Ligament located? attaches liver to abdominal wall. It separates right lobe from left lobe (major lobes)
Name the two Minor Lobes of Liver Caudate Lobe and Quadrate Lobe
What is the function of Bile Canaliculi carries bile
What are Sinusoids? venous channels that separate the plates of hepatocytes.
Function of Sinusoids? carry blood from periphery of lobule toward the central vein
What does the portal triads consist of? 1. Branch of hepatic portal vein, 2. branch of hepatic artery and 3. branch of hepatic duct
What does the liver secrete? produces and secretes bile
What does the liver store? Iron, glycogen, Vitams A, B12, D, E & K
What does liver exrete? hormones, drugs, cholesterol, bile pigments
What is Lipid Metabolism? Breakdown of fatty acids. Synthesis of cholesterol. Converts excess carbs and proteins into fat
What is carb metabolism? removes excess glucose from blood and converts it to glycogen for storage. Then breaks down the glycogen into glucose
What is protein metabolism? converts amino acids into different amino acids (as needed for protein synthesis)
What are the functions of Kupffer Cells? removes bacteria, damaged red blood cells and other particles from blood
How much bile is produced in one day 1 liter
What is function of Bile Salts? breaks down large fat globules into tiny fat droplets. Increases surface area of the fat. Allows for more efficient enzyme action in fat digestion
Where are bile pigments produced from? breakdown of hemoglobin from damaged red blood cells
How is gallbladder attached to liver? by the cystic duct
What forms the common bile duct? the cystic duct joins the hepatic duct
What happens to bile when it is ejected from gallbladder? goes into the cystic duct
What is the function of the gallbladder? to store and concentrate bile
What stimulates the gallbladder? Cholecystokinin
What is the shape of the Pancreas? elongated and flattened organ
Where is the pancreas located? along posterior abdominal wall
Where is head of pancrease located? Right side of pancreas
What do Islets of Langerhans secrete? insulin and glucagon into blood
What do Exocrine portion of pancrease consist of? pancreatic acinar cells
What does Pancreatic Amylas act on? acts on starch and other complex carbs
What does Trypsin break down? protein
What activates Trypsin? enterokinase
What is function of pancreatic lipase? breaks fat into fatty acids
what is function of secretin? stimulates pancrease to produce a fluid with bicarbonate ions. Which neutralizes the acids in the duodenum
What speeds up hydrolysis? digestive enzymes
What breaks down starches & complex carbs? salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase
List Dissaccharides sucrose, maltose and lactose
What are disaccharides broken down into? monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What secretes Pepsin gastric glands
What activates pepsin hydrochloric acid
What is Trypsin secreted by? Secreted by Pancreas as Trypsinogen (inactive). Activated by enterokinase to Trypsin (active)
What do pepsin & trypsin break down? Into shorter chains of amino acids: peptides
What is function of Peptidase enzymes produces amino acids and is absorbable end product of protein digestion
Where is the only place Lipid Fat Digestion occurs? Small Intestine
What happens to Fat when it enters the Duodenum? it is emuslfified by bile
What is function of Pancreatic Lipases? break down fat into monoglycerides and fatty acids
How many liters of food enter the digestive tract daily? 10 liters
How many liters of food enters the large intestine? less than 1 liter
how many liters of food are absorbed in small intestine? 9 liters
Where does absorption take place? entire length of small intestine. Mostly in jejunum
What is left of Chyme when it reaches the large intestine? some water, indigestible materials and bacteria
Created by: dcarafa