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Vet Neuropathology

Veterinary Pathology of the CNS 227.301 1st Sem

The tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord are called the ____. meninges
The three layers of the meninges are called the ____ ____, ____ ____, and ____ ____. dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
The ____ in the spinal cord is separated from the bone by a a space called the ____ space. dura, epidural
Within the cranium, the ____ mater is closely apposed to the bone, so there is no ____ space in the brain. dura, epidural
Vessels entering the brain from the other surface take with them a layer of ____ mater, which forms a ____ space called ____ ____. pia, perivascular, Virchow-Robbins space
CSF fills the ____ space between the ____ mater and the ____ mater. subarachnoid, arachnoid, pia
Meningitis is caused by ____ cells present in the ____ and _____ spaces. inflammatory, subarachnoid, Virchow-Robbins
White matter of the CNS is composed mainly of ____ ____. myelinated axons
Grey matter of the CNS is composed mainly of ____ ____ ____. neuronal cell bodies
____ is a felt-like material composed of axons, dendrites, and processes of oligodendroglia, microglia, and astrocytes in the grey matter. Neuropil
Neurons are ____ designed to receive and transmit ____, and to secrete and transport ____. cells, stimuli, hormones
Neurons are composed of a ____ ____, with efferent ___ and afferent _____ processes. cell body, axons, dendritic
Neuronal cell bodies are collected into groups in the brain and spinal cord called ____. nuclei
What characteristic changes occur following trauma to an axon? 1. central chromatolysis; 2. Wallerian degeneration
Describe Wallerian degeneration. degeneration of an axon distal to the point of injury; the axon disintegrates and is slowly removed by macrophages. The myelin sheath swells and fragments.
What is central chromatolysis? typical changes in the neuronal soma (cell body) following damage to an axon, including swelling and clearing of the cytoplasm in the center of the cell body
If a neronal cell body survives the initial trauma, the axon ____ to the trauma can begin to ____ within ____. proximal, regenerate, days
Following axonal trauma, it is possible for a proliferating ____ ____ to enter an intact ____ ____ and grow along it at a rate of ____ mm per ____. axonal sprout, endoneural tube, 1-4, day
Central chromatolysis is also know as the "____ ____". axon reaction
Any condition that deprives a neuron of ____ or ____ supply can cause ____-type damage. oxygen, energy, ischaemic
Ischaemic damage to neurons involves a mechanism known as ____. excitotoxicity
Excitotoxicty involves too much ____ in the ____ of neurons. calcium, cytoplasm
During neuronal hypoxia, there is ____ to ____ and other ____ which results in the release of ____ ____ into the ____. damage, mitochondria, organelles, sequesteered calcium, cytoplasm
During neuronal hypoxia, increased levels of intracellular ____ activates ____ and causes ____ ____ and generation of ____ ____. calcium, enzymes, membrane damage, free radicals
As part of the excitotoxicity mechanish, there is prolonged ____ of the neuron, resulting in release of large amounts of ____ ____ such as ____, which stimulates the movement of ____ ___ into the cell, thus potentiating the damage caused by activated ___. depolarization, excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate, extracellular calcium, enzymes
____ are small cells with dark round nuclei, found in grey matter and in rows between nerve fibers in white matter. Their function is to ____ and ___ the ___ ___ around ____. The equivalent cell in the PNS is the ____ cell. Oligodendrogliocytes, produce, maintain, myelin sheath, axons, Schwann
Damage to one ____ can result in ____ of many ____, because each ____ has multiple processes that extend to many different ____. oligodendrogliocyte, demyelination, axons, oligodendrogliocyte, axons
The most numerous cells in the CNS are the ____. astrocytes
The fucntion of astrocytes is ____ and ____, and they also have ____ functions. structural, supportive, regulatory
Astrocytes have a large number of cell ____ that form an ____ ____ ____. Some of these ____ form part of the ___-____ ____. processes, interconnecting structural framework, processes, blood-brain barrier
Astrocystes play a role in ____ via ____ of cell processes; healing can result in an "____ ____". repair, proliferation, astrocytic scar
The ependyma is the ciliated cuboidal to columnar ___ lining the ____, the ____ ____, and the ___ ___ of the spinal cord. It lies between the brain ____ and the ____. epithelium, ventricles, mesencephalic aqueduct, central canal, parenchyma, CSF
The ____ ____ is a vascular structure present within some parts of the ventricular system of the brain. It is comprised of ____, ____, and ____ ____. It plays a role in the production of ____. choroid plexus, capillaries, ependyma, pia mater, CSF
CSF is formed by the ____ ____ and the ____. It is secreted into the ____, moves through them, and out into the ____ space via the ____ ____ of the ____ ventricles. choroid plexus, ependyma, ventricles, subarachnoid, lateral processes, fourth
CSF is removed by passing through the ____ ____ into the ____ ____ ____ and on into the ____. ____ ____ are extension of the ____ membrane that project from the ____ space into the ____ ____ ____. arachnoid villi, dural venous sinuses, bloodstream, arachnoid villi, arachnoid subarachnoid, dural venous sinuses
The blood-brain barrier is formed by ____ ____ between the endothelial cells lining the ____ ____ within the brain parenchyma, as well as ____ processes of ____ that terminate on the endothelial cells. tight junctions, blood vessels, foot, astrocytes
Due to the blood-brain barrier, the only substances that can leave the vessels in the brain are ____, small ____-____ molecules, and certain compounds such as ____ and ____ ____, which have specific active transport systems. water, lipid-soluble, glucose, amino acids
Name the 4 types of cerebral oedema. 1. vasogenic; 2. cytotoxic; 3. hydrostatic; 4. osmotic
Vasogenic oedmea is an ____ oedema involving the loosening of ____ ____ and the breakdown of the ____-____ ____. extracellular, tight junctions, blood-brain barrier.
In vasogenic oedmea, fluid, ____, and ____ ____ leak out of the vessels, remaining mostly in the ____ compartment. solutes, plasma proteins, interstitial (extracellular)
Vasogenic oedema is commonly seen following ____ injury, formation of ____-____ lesions, or ____. vascular, space-occupying, inflammation
Cytotoxic oedema is an ____ oedema that develops due to disrupted cellular ____. It can occur when cellular ____ production is impaired, resulting in failure of the ____ ____, an accumulation of intracellular ____, and an influx of ____. intracellular, metabolism, ATP, NA/K pump, sodium, water
Hydrostatic oedema occurs when there is an increase in ____ ____ ____, usually due to ____. ventricular hydrostatic pressure, hydrocephalus
With hydrostatic oedema, there is increased ____ of ____ across the ____ lining the ____. This fluid accumulates in the ____ ____ ____. movement, fluid, ependyma, ventricle, periventricular white matter.
Osmotic cerebral oedema can occur due to sudden water ____ (water ____). The increased water load leads to production of ____ ____, causing ____-____ fluid to move from the plasma into the brain via ____. loading, intoxication, hypotonic plasma, solute-free, osmosis
Created by: MLGVet2B