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Respiratory System

Respiration exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide between the atmosphere & the body cells
Ventilation moves air through a series of passes into & out of the lungs
External Respiration exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
Transports the blood transports the gases to and from the tissue cells
Internal Respiration exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells
Upper Respiratory Tract nose, pharynx and larynx
Lower Respiratory Tract trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
Nose framework consists of bone and cartilage
Nasal Cavity interior chamber of the nose
Nasal Septum divides the nose into two parts
Name two places that air enters the nasal cavity from the outside nostrils and external nares
Internal Nares the openings from the nasal cavity into the pharynx
Palate forms the floor of the nasal cavity and separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Hard Palate anterior portion of the palate
Rhinitis inflamm of the nasal mucuosa accompanied by excessive mucus
Tracheotomy creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck and insertion of a tube to facilitate passage of air or removal of secretions
Respiratory Obstruction foreign objects that become lodged in the larynx or trachea
Bronchoscopy procedure in which a fiber optic bundle is inserted into the trachea and directed along the conducting passageways to the smaller bronchi. It allows visualization of the inside of the bronchi
Asthma constriction of smooth muscle around the bronchial tree
Pleurisy inflamm of the pleura
Pneumothorax accumulation of air in the pleural cavity
Uvula helps direct food into the oropharynx
Soft Palate posterior portion of palate that has no bony support
Nasal Conchae bony ridges that project into the nasal cavity. They help direct air flow through the nasal cavity
Where are the Paranasal Sinuses located? in the frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
What is the function of the paranasal sinuses? reduce the weight of the skull, produce mucus and influence voice quality
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium mucous membrane that lines most of the nasal cavity
pharynx throat
how long is the pharynx 13 cm
List the 3 regions of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
nasopharynx posterior to the nasal cavity and extend to the uvula
How does air enter the nasopharynx? from the nasal cavity through the internal nares
what do the auditory tubes (esutachian) do? help to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
pharyngeal tonsils collections of lymphoid tissue
Where is location of pharyngeal tonsils? posterior wall of the nasopharynx
Where is the oropharynx posterior to the oral cavity
Where does the oropharynx receive food, air, and water from? Oral cavity
fauces opening between the oral cavity and oropharynx
What borders the Fauces? masses of lymphoid tissue called tonsils
Where are the palatine tonsils located in the lateral walls of the oropharynx, adjacent to the fauces
where are the lingual tonsils located? on the surface of the posterior portion of the tongue, also in the region of the fauces
Where is the laryngopharnyx located? most inferior portion of the pharynx
What are the oropharynx and laryngopharynx lined with? mucuous membrane of stratified squamous epithelium
larynx voice box. It is the passageway for air between the pharynx and the trachea
how long is the larynx 5 cm long
What is the larynx made of? formed by 9 pieces of cartilage that are connected to each other by muscles and ligaments
Name the 3 largest catilaginous portions of the larynx thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and epiglottis
thyroid cartilage adams apple
cricoid cartilage forms the base of the larynx and is attached to the trachea
epiglottis long leaf shaped structure that prevents food and water from entering the trachea
Two pairs of ligaments that house the larynx vestibular folds (false vocal cords) and true vocal cords
Function of false vocal cords they work with the epiglottis to prevent particles from entering the lower respiratory tract
Function of true vocal cords sound production
glottis opening between the true vocal cords which leads to the trachea
trachea windpipe
What forms the trachea? consists of a tube that extends from the larynx and into the mediastinum, where it divides into R & L bronchi
How long is the trachea? 12 to 15 cm long
What supports the trachea? 15 - 20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage
What is the mucous membrane that lines the trachea ? ciliated epithelium
what do the alveolar ducts consist of? simple squamous epithelium
what is the function of the alveoli ducts permits rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Describe the right lung shorter, broader and has a greater volume than the left lung. It has 3 lobes
Describe the left lung longer and narrower than the right lung. Has the cardiac notch and has two lobes
pleura double layered serous membrane that encloses lungs
parietal pleura lines the wall of the thorax
visceral pleura attached to the surface of the lung
pleural cavity small space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
pulmonary ventilation referred to as "breathing". It is the process of air flowing into lungs during inhalation and out of lungs during exhalation
inhalation process of taking air into the lungs
diaphragm dome shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
What happens when the diaphragm contracts? it drops or becomes flatter. This increases the size of the thoracic cavity
Exhalation (or expiration) process of letting air out of the lungs during the breathing cycle
What happens when the diaphragm relaxes? the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases to its normal size
What happens to the alveoli when air leaves the lungs? they become smaller
Created by: dcarafa