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anatomy of the ear+

anatomy & physiology of the ear+abbrevs

outer ear: external ear;sound waves travel through the air
middle ear: tympanic cavity; sound waves travel through the bone
inner ear: labyrinth; sound waves travel through fluid
3 major bones in the tympanic cavity: Malleus,Incus & Stapes
in the labyrinth is the: Cochlea; a snail shaped structure filled with fluid called perilymph
labyrinth contains the organ: corti;which has nerve cells that transmit impulses to the auditory nerve which then transmit these impulses to the brain
Vestibule & Semicircular; also found in the labyrinth but are used for balance NOT hearing
Eustachian Tube: connects the tympanic cavity to the pharynx. it equalizes pressure on the outer&inner surfaces of the eardrum
Anacusis: Complete deafness; also called anacusia
Conduction impairment blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear(conduction pathway)
labyrinthitis: inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process
Meneire disease: Disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) condition cause by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing,caused by sounds that are "too long,too loud, or too close"
otitis externa: Infection of the external auditory canal
presbyacusis: Impairment of hearing resulting from old age;also called presbyacusia
Pressure equalizing tubes: PE tubes are inserted through the tympanic membrane, commonly to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes
tinnitus: perception of ringing,hissing or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present.
vertigo: Hallucination of movement, or a feeling of dizziness or spinning
audiometry: measurement of hearing activity at various sound wave frequencies
caloric stimulation test: Test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear(acoustic nerve)to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo
electronystagmography: ENG Method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles
otoscopy: Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
otoplasty: Corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna
Rinne: Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction (BC) versus air conduction (AC) of sound
Weber: Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time.
Tympanoplasty: Reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty
Medication; Antiemetics: treats & prevents nausea,vomiting,dizziness & vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea & vomiting
Medication; Otic analgesics: Provide temporary from pain & inflammation associated with otic disorders
Medication; Wax emulsifiers: Loosen & help remove impacted cerumen
AC air conduction
AS left ear
AD right ear
AU both ears
BC bone conduction
ENT ears,nose,throat
NIHL noise-induced hearing loss
OM otitis media
PE Pressure Equalizing tube
URI upper respiratory infection