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LOM chapter 15

musculoskeletal system

acetabulum Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint
acromion Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.
articular cartilage Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
calcaneal Pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone)
calcaneus heel bone
calcium One of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in the bones
cancellous bone Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
carpals wrist bones
cartilage Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immatue skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.
cervical vertebrae vertebrae in the neck
chondrocostal Pertaining to the cartilage attached to the ribs
clavicle collar bone
coccyx tailbone
collagen Dense, connective tissue protein strands found around the outer portion of bones
collas fracture occurs near the wrist joint at teh distal end of the radius
compact bone hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer ortion of bones
condyle Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint
crainial bones Skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal
crainiotome Instument to cut the skull
crainiotomy incision of the skull
crepitus is the crackling sound produced when ends of bones rub each other or rub against roughened cartilage
decalcification Removal of calcium from bones
diaphysis Shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
epiphyseal plate Cartaginous area at teh ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
epiphysis Each end of the long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
ethhmoid bone thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and formsd part of the orbits of the eyes
Ewing sarcoma Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occuring in children
exostosis bony growth (begnin) arising from the surface of the bone
facial bones Bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, andzygomatic
femoral Pertaining to the thigh bone (femur)
femur thigh bone
fibula the smaller of the two lower leg bones
fibular Pertaining to the smaller of the two lower leg bones
fissure Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
fontanelle Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
foramen Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
fossa Shallow cavity in a bone
frontal bone froms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
haversian canals Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone.
humeral pertaining to the upper arm bone (humerus)
humerus upper arm bone
hypercalcemia Excessive calcium in the bloodstream
iliac Pertaining to the iliu (upper portion of the hip bone)
ilium upper portion of the hip bone
impacted fracture one fragment is driven firmly into the other
ischium Pertaining to the ischium (lower and posterior part of the hip bone)
kyphosis Abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic vertabrae
lacrimal bones two small, thin bones ocated at teh corner of each eye. lacrim/o means tear
lamina part of the vertebral arch
laminectomy Removal of a lamina to relieve the syptoms of a ruptured intervertebral disk
lordosis Abnormal anterior curvature of the backbones in the lumbar region
lumbar vertebrae are the strongest and largest of the backbones located in the lower back
lumbosacral between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae
malleolus Round process on both sides of the ankle joint. the lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia
mandible the lower jaw bone
mandibular Pertaining to the lower jaw bone
manubrium Upper portion of the sternum; articulates with teh medial aspect of the clavicle
mastoid process Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
medullary cavity Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
metacarpals hand bones
metacarpectomy removal of hand bones
metaphysis Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate
metatarsalgia Pain of the foot bones
metatarsals foot bones
myelopoiesis Formation of bone marrow
nasal bone two slender bones that support the bridge of the nose
olecranal Pertaining to the elbow
olecranon LArge process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow
orthopedics study of the musculoskeletal system
osseous tissue bone tissue
ossification Process of bone formation
osteitis Inflammation of bones
osteoblast Bone cell that helps form bony tissue
osteoclast Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
osteodystrophy poor development of bones
osteogenesis imperfecta defective development of bones that are brittle and fragile; fractures occur with the slightest trauma
osteogenic sarcoma common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts
osteomalacia Sofening of bone
osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
osteopenia bone mineral density is lower than normal
osteoporosis Condition of increased porosity of bone with loss of bony tissue and decrease in bone mass
osteotome Instrument to cut bone
parietal bone two bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
patella kneecap
pelvimetry Measurement of the proportions of the pelvic bone (before childbirth)
periosteum Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
peroneal pertaining to the fibula
phalangeal Pertaining to the finger or the toe bones
phalanges bones of the fingers and toes
phosphorus Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
pubic symphysis Area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis.
pubis anterior portion of the hip bone
radial pertaining to the lateral lower arm bone
radius lateral lower arm bone
red bone marrow Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
reduction restoration of the bone to its normal postion
ribs Twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall
sacral vertebrae five separate bones that fuse in a small child located toward the end of the vertibrael column
scapula shoulder bone
scapular pertaining to the shoulder bone
scoliosis abnormal condition of lateral curviture of the spine
sella turcica Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located.
sinus Hollow air cavity within a bone
sphenoid bone bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull
spondylolisthesis degeneration of the intervertebral disks in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions
spondylosis abnormal condition of vertebrae
sternum breastbone
styloid process pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
subcostal below the ribs
supraclavicular above the collar bone
suture Immovable joint between bones, such as teh skull (cranium)
talipes Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus)
tarsals bones of the ankle
tarsectomy Removal of ankle bones
temporal bone two bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium.
temporomandipular joint Connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw
thoracic vertebrae those vertebrae articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs
tibia the larger and inner of the two lower leg bones.
tibial Pertaining to the tibia, the larger and inner of the two lower leg bones.
trabeculae Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone.
trochanter Large process at teh neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature.
tubercle Rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
turberosity Rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
ulna Pertaining to the medial lower
ulnar pertaining to the medial lower arm bone.
vertebra; vertebrae Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal
vertebroplasty Repair of a fractured vertebra
vomar the thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
xiphoid process Lower, narrow portion of the sternum.
yellow bone marrow Fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
zygomatic bones two bones, one on each side of the face, that form the high ortion of the check
abduction Movement away from the midline of the body
achondroplasia an inharited condition in which the bones of the arms adn legs fail to grow to normal size because of a defect in cartalage and bone formation
adduction Movement toward the midline of the body
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (lou Gehrig disease) muscles are affected by degeneration of nerves in the spinal cord and lower region of teh brain
ankylosing spondylitis Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffining of joints, primarily of the spine
ankylosis stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint
arthrodesis Bones fused across athe joint space by surgery
arthrotomy incision of a joint
articular cartilage Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint
articulation Any type of joint
atrophy decrease in the size of tissue
bunion Enlargement of bone tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe
bursa; bursae Sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
bursitis inflamation of the bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome Compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
chondroma benign tumors made of cartilage
chondromalacia softening and roughening of the articular cartilaginous surface
dislocation Displacement of a bone from its joint
dorsiflexion Backward (upward) movement of the foot
extention Straightening of a fixed limb
fascia Fibrous membraine seperating and enveloping muscles
fasciectomy surgical removal of strips of fascia
fibromyalgia chronic pain and stiffness in muscles, joints, and fibrous tissue.
flexion Bending a limb; decreasing the angle between bones
ganglion Fluid filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand
gouty arthritis Inflamation and painful swelling of joints caused be excessive uric acid in the body
hemarthrosis Blood collects abnormally in the joint
hydrarthrosis Synovial fluid collects abnormally in the joint
hypertrophy increase in size of an organ or tissue
hyperuricemiaa increased amount of uric acid in the blood
leiomyoma benign tumor in smooth muscle
leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor in smooth muscle
ligament Connective tuissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
ligamentous pertaining to ligaments
Lyme disease Disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick
muscular dystrophy group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system
myalgia muscle pain
myopathy Diseases of the muscles
myositis Inflamation of he muscles
osteoathritis Inflamation of joints
plantar flexion Bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground
podagra excessive pain in the foot
polyarthritis Inflamation of many joints
pronation Turning the palm downward
pyrexia fever
rhabdomyoma Benign tumor of a skeletal muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant tumor of a skeletal muscle
rheumatoid arthritis Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane
rheumatologist Specialist in treatment of joint disorders
rotation Circular movement around a central point
sarcopenia Loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging
spinal stenosis Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine
sprain Trauma to a joint without rupture
strain an injury involving the overstretching of a muscle
striated muscle Skeletal muscle
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
supination Turning the palm upward
suture joint Immovable joint, such as between the bones of the skull
synovial cavity Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane
synovial fluid Viscus (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white.
synovial joint A freely movable joint
synovial membrain Tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid
synovitis Inflammation of a synovial membrane
system lupus erthematosus Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs
tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon
tendon Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
tenorrhaphy Suture of a tendon
tenosynovitis Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
visceral muscle Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
Created by: mscardenas