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Chapter 12 Long Vers


Absorption passsage of substances of digested food molecules into intestinal cells
Amylase an enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules.
Bile a bitter, yellow-green secreting of the liver.
Chyme liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum.
Crown the part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line.
Deciduous Teeth the first set or primary teeth; baby teeth.
Defecation the act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus.
Deglutition swallowing.
Dietitian an allied health professional trained to plan nutritional programs for people.
Digestion process of altering the chemical and physical compostion of food so that it can be used by the body cells.
Enamel a hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth. (hardest substance in the body)
Endocrine Gland a gland that secretes in enzymes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts.
Exocrine Gland gland that secretes it's enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel.
Gastroenterologist medical doctor who specializes in the study of the disease or disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract.
Gavage procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube.
Gingivae gum tissue
Glucagon hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low.
Glucose simple sugar found in certain foods.
Glycogen complex sugar (starch) that is the major carb stored in animal cells.
Glycogenesis conversion of simple sugar (glucose) into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver.
Glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver.
Hepatocyte liver cell.
Ileum distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
Mastication chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva.
Nutritionist allied health professional who studies & applies the principles and science of nutrition.
Palate structure that forms the roof of the mouth.
Pancreas elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches long, located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen.
Pharynx throat.
Rectum portion of the large intestine, 12 cm long.
Rugae a ridge or fold
Saliva the clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth.
Salivary Glands 1 of the 3 pairs of glands secreting into the mouth, thus aiding the digestive process.
Sigmoid Colon portion of the colon that extends frmo the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum.
Sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passages or closes a natural opening in the body.
Stomach major organ of digestion located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and divided into a body and pylorus.
Uvula the small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth.
Achlorhydria abnormal condition characterized by the absense of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice.
Anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
Aphagia condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes.
Ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Borborygmus audible abdominal sound
Constipation difficulty in passing stooles.
Diarrhea frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
Dyspepsia vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating. an uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating, and nausea.
Emaciation excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition.
Emesis material expelled from the stomach during vomiting
Eructation belching.
Flatus, Flatulence air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum.
Gastroesophageal Reflux blackflow of content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Icterus yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes; JAUNDICE.
Nausea unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit.
Pruritus Ani itchy booty.
Steatorrhea greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces, characterized by frothy foul-smelling fecal matter that floats.
Vomitus Emesis; material expelled from the stomach during vomiting.
Anal Fistula abnormal passageway of the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum.
Aphthous Stomatitis small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth; CANKER SORES.
Celiac Disease nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa.
Cirrhosis disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative, causing injury to the hepatocytes (functional cells of the liver).
Colorectal Cancer presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine.
Crohn's Disease digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia.
Dental Caries tooth decay; cavities
Dysentery painful intestinal inflammation typicall caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants.
Gallstones (cholelithiasis) pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization.
Hemorrhoids unnaturally swollen vein in the distal rectum or anus.
Hepatitis acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites.
Hernia irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surround cavity's muscular wall.
Intussusception telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, usually in the ileocecal region.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Spastic colon. Increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines.
Oral Luekoplakia precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth.
Peptic Ulcers break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity of the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori.
Polyps, Colorectal small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum.
Thrush fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces.
Ulcerative Colitis chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers. characterized by large, watery diarrheal stools containing mucus, pus, or blood.
Abdominocentesis (paracentesis) involves insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position.
Amylase enzyme secreted normally from the pancreatic cells that travels to the duodenum by way of the pancreatic duct & aids in digestion.
Cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Cholecystography (oral) visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye.
Colonoscopy direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope.
Colostomy surgical creation of a new opening of the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled (an abdominal-wall anus) by bringing the incised colon out to the abdominal surface.
Gastric Lavage irrigation, or washing out, of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution.
Herniorrhaphy surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures, mesh, or wire.
Small Bowel Follow-Through oral administration of a radiopaque contract medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system.
Created by: kmariemurray