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Veterinary Osteopath

VETERINARY-Developmental, Degenerative and Inflammatory Joint Diseases

Name a developmental joint disease common in young, fast growing, particularly male animals? Osteochondrosis
Describe what osteochondrosis might look like. 1)Multifocal abnormalities in endochondral ossification 2) Involves articular-epiphyseal cartilage complexes as well as physes
What causes an early lesion in osteochondrosis? Ischaemic damage to growing cartilage
Articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in immature animals relies on diffusion from synovial fluid rather than blood vessels in cartilage canals for nutrients. True/False? False- it relies on blood vessels in cartilage canals rather than diffusion from synovial fluid
What may be the initial event in causing osteochondrosis? Damage to the articular-epiphyseal blood supply
What is the term used to describe osteochondritis resulting in the splitting off of a piece of articular cartilage due to fissure formation in an area of dysplastic subarticular cartilage so that it forms a flap or separates and falls into joint space? Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
Name a common sequela to altered articular surfaces Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
What is a common predilection site for osteochondrosis for pigs and dogs? Dogs-shoulder joint Pigs-elbow joint
What deficiency is strongly associated with manifesting osteochondrosis in deer and horses in NZ? Copper deficiency
What joint disease does this description diagnose-Characterised by subluxation of hip joint due to lack of conformity between acetabulum and femoral head? Hip Dysplasia
Overfeeding can lead to hip dysplasia. True/False True-it can be a factor in developing this joint disease
Is hip dysplasia genetic? Yes-heritability of 0.2-0.6
When are hip dysplasia lesions most severe? Most severe in pups that grow fast during first few weeks of life
Predisposing factors of hip dysplasia-________ muscle mass, __________ of pectineus muscle, possible linkage with ___________ possible low pelvic, hypotrophy, osteochondrosis
Radiographic lesions of hip dysplasia are not apparent until approximately ____ months of age? 6
Name 3 lesions of hip dysplasia 1) shallow acetabulum 2) subluxation of femoral head 3) degenerative changes on articular cartilage of femoral head
What term fits with the description A result of an interaction between biological and mechanical factors on articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovium? Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
DJD is limited to only one joint. True/False? False-DJD could be found in many joints
What is primary DJD? 1) No apparent predisposing cause 2) Mainly in older animals 3) Acceleration of normal aging process
What is secondary DJD? 1) Underlying abnormality in joint or supporting structures leads to premature degneration (trauma to ligaments, septic arthritis, persistent hemarthrosis, malignant fracture etc)
Name 4 gross changes found in DJD 1) Yellow discoloration 2) Fibrillation (roughening of articular cartilage 3) Eburnation (loss of articular cartilage exposes subchondral bone) 4) Pannus formation (extension of granulation tissue over articular cartilage from synovial membrane)
Osteophyte formation, fibrous thickening of joint capsule, hypertrophy of synovial villi, and excess synovial fluid describe what joint disease? Degenerative Joint Disease
Name 3 chondrodystrophic breeds Dachshund, Pekingese, Corgi
What usually occurs early in chondrodystrophic breeds? Degeneration of the nucleus pulposus
What happens to nucleus pulposus in chondrodysplastic breeds? Nucleus pulposus largely displaced by dry, degenerate, often mineralised material by
The nucleus pulposus in non-chondrodysplastic breeds remains gelatinous until middle age then becomes dry but never mineralises. True/False? True
Degenerate disks have reduced __________ and are therefore predisposed to ___________ through degenerate fibers of annulus fibrosus flexibility, herniation
Herniations usually occur _________ or ________ dorsally or dorsolaterally
What might dogs with disk herniation act like? They may have no clinical signs or may present with nervous signs referable to spinal cord or nerve root damage
What type of herniation is largely confinded to chondrodystrophic dogs, particularly dashshunds, between the ages of 3 and 7? Type I herniations
What type of herniation usually occurs in non-chondrodystrophic breeds between the ages of 6 and 8? Type II herniations
Describe Type I herniation 1)Sudden massive extrusion of degenerate nucleus pulposus 2)Acute pain, paresis or paralysis due to compression of spinal cord or nerve roots 3)Clinical signs depend on amount of material extruded and location
Describe Type II herniation 1) Partial herniation of nucleus pulposus through ruptured fibers in annulus fibrosus 2)Dorsal longitudinal ligament remains intact but bulges into spinal canal 3)Clinical signs usually mild and develop slowly
What regions in the spinal cord do herniations usually occur 75% T12-L2 (greatest mobility) 15% cervical region
What type of herniation is fibrocartilaginous embolism associated with? Type II herniation
What is a fibrocartilaginous embolism? When degenerate material from nucleus pulposus gains access to spinal vasculature and causes infarction of spinal cord
What are other names for Spondylosis? Ankylosing spondylosis or spondylosis deformans
What characterises spondylosis? Osteophyte formation on vertebral and lateral margins of vertebral bodies
Spondylosis may form bridges between adjacent vertebrae? True/False? True
Describe the pathogenesis of spondylosis 1)Degeneration of ventral annulus fibrosis 2)Separation of annulus fibrosus from adjacent vertebral body 3)Mild ventral displacement of ventral longitudinal ligament 4)Formation of osteophytes from edge of ventral body 5)Progressive osteophyte formation
Inflammation of joints primarily involves the synovial membranes because of its rich vascular supply. True/False? True
The terms _________ and arthritis are used synonymously Synovitis
______________ refers to inflammation of a tendon sheath Tenosynovitis-often accompanies inflammation of the adjacent synovial joint
Name 3 types of arthritis Fibrinous, Purulent, and Fibrinopurulent
Describe fibrinous arthritis Fibrin clots in synovial fluid which is typical of many bacterial infections
Describe purulent arthritis Turbid synovial fluid due to abundant neutrophils-bacterial aetiology
Describe fibropurulent arthritis Arthritis where both fibrin and neutrophils are found
What is a common sequele to neonatal bacteremia in horses and ruminants? Infectious arthritis-bacterial
Why is the synovial membrane a favored site for hematogenous bacterial locations? Because the synovial membrane is richly vascular
What is a possible way to diagnose infectious bacterial arthritis? The animal will be a neonate, one or many joints will be swollen, hot, and very painful. Some may resolve others may not
Most animals with bacterial arthritis also have ___________ Osteomyelitis
Bacterial arthritis may also be a sequele to a ___________ ______________ into the joint. penetrating wound
In severe fibrinous arthritis, organisation of fibrin deposits causes ________ of the joint stiffness
Lysed neutrophils in septic arthritis cause rapid __________ __ ________ _________. destruction of articular cartilage
Pannus formation may occur in chronic degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases. True/False? True
Pannus formation involves ___________ tissue from synovial membrane grows out over an area of articular cartilage. granulation
In Pannus formation, underlying cartilage dies due to a lack of __________ from synovial fluid nutrients
Diskospondylitis is described as inflammation originating in an intervertebral disk and extending into contiguous vertebrae. True/False? True
What are some causes of diskospondylitis? Staph aureus and possible migrating grass seeds
What condition is described as inflammation secondary to persistence of antigenic material in synovium rather than an active infection? Non-infectious (immune mediated) arthritis
Name 2 causes of non-infectious (immune-mediated) arthritis. A previous infection or deposition of immune complexes derived from inflammation elsewhere in the body
What is Erosive immune-mediated arthritis? A progressive disease process leading to destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone
What is the pathogenesis of erosive immune-mediated arthritis? Immune complexes in synovial membrane activate complement cascade and generate pro-inflammatory peptides (C3a +C5a)
Describe non-erosive immune-mediated arthritis Milder, no significant radiographic or gross lesions, neutrophils in synovial fluid, plasma cells and lymphocytes in synovial membrane
Name the 3 different forms of non-erosive immune-mediated arthritis 1)Idiopathic polyarthritis 2)Drug-induced polyarthritis 3)Plasmacytic/lymphocytic synovitis
Created by: vincentsvet