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Veterinary Osteopath

VETERINARY-Bone necrosis and inflammation

Name 5 causes of bone necrosis 1)Vascular disruption following fracture 2) Acute inflammation 3) Infiltrating neoplasms 4) Thromboembolism 5) Peripheral vasoconstriction (ergotism)
A large fragment of necrotic bone is referred to as what? A sequestrum
Necrotic bone is resorbed by osteoclasts. True or False? True
Why are large fragments of necrosis difficult for osteoclasts to reabsorb? Large fragments can only be resorbed from the outside margins of the sequestrum
Name 3 factors which influence the healing of necrotic bone 1)Volume of dead bone 2)Status of blood supply 3) Presence of infection
A layer of granulation tissue and reactive bone, which attempts to wall off the sequestrum, is referred to as what? An involucrum
What is Legg-Calve-Perthes disease? A syndrome characterised by avascular necrosis of the femoral head (occurs in small dog breeds)
What is the pathogenesis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease? Blood vessels to femoral head travel along neck before entering bone. In susceptible breeds, the vessels remain superficial and venous drainage may be impaired by increased intra-articular pressure (synovitis). Infarction of femoral head occurs
What do osteitis, osteomyelitis, and periostitis refer to? A general term for bone inflammation, inflammation originating in the medullary cavity, and inflammation originating in the periosteum respectively
Tearing of ligamentous insertions can lead to exostoses. True of False? True-large exostoses may interfere with function such as "splints" on metacarpal bones of horses
Are bacterial infections in bones common in horses and production animals? Yes-usually hematogenous + centered on medullary cavity
Can compound fractures lead to bacterial osteomyelitis? Yes especially dogs and cats
What are the predilection sites for bacterial osteomyelitis? Bacteria most frequently localise at sites of active endochondral ossification in metaphyses + epiphyses of long bones and vertebral bodies
What species does "lumpy jaw" or mandibular osteomyelitis usually occur in? Cattle
Which parasite usually causes mandibular osteomyelitis? Actinomyces bovis
What is the pathogenesis of mandibular osteomyelitis? Oral mucosal injury-Actinomyces bovis gains entry to bone via lymyphatics-induces chronic pyogranulomatous inflammatioin-progressive mandibular enlargment as a response to the inflammation
Name 2 fungi that can cause osteomyelitis Cryptococcus neoformans and Paecilomyces sp
What is another name for hypertrophic osteodystrophy Metaphyseal osteopathy
Canine metaphyseal osteopathy is a disease of young, fast growing, large/giant breed dogs of 3-6 months. True or False? True
List characteristics of canine metaphyseal osteopathy Swelling and pain in metaphyseal regions of long bones (esp radius + ulna), accompanied by fever, anorexia, may have diarrhea
What is a likely cause of canine metaphyseal osteopathy? Most likely bacterial in origin, possibly following a period of neutropenia or impaired neutrophil function. Early infection characterised by suppurative inflammation
Craniomandibular osteopathy is what sort of disease? Hyperostotic diesease
What does hyperostosis mean? Excess new bone formation
When is an excess of new bone growth normal? Trauma, infection, nutritional imbalances, neoplasia
What bones are effected in a craniomandibular osteopathy? Mandible, occipital, and temporal bones are primarily involved
What breed of dog is commonly affected by craniomandibular osteopathy? West Highland white terriers
Hypertrophic osteopathy is characterised by diffuse periosteal new bone formation along diaphyses + metaphyses of certain long bones. True of False? True-Associated with chronic inflammatory or neoplastic disease in the thoracic cavity (occasionally in the abdomen)
What range of thoracic lesions may be involved in hypertrophic osteopathy? 1* or 2* neoplasms, granulomatous inflammation of lungs +/- lymph nodes
Hypertrophic osteopathy has been associated with bladder tumors in dogs and ovarian tumors in horses. True of False? True-bone lesions resolve if thoracic lesions are removed
What are possible causes of hypertrophic osteopathy? Possibilities include hypoxia, AV shunting, neurogenic + humeral mechanisms, stimulation of extra-renal volume receptor system
Created by: vincentsvet