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William Rimmer * Work doesn't fit into other genres; Romantic pieces actually anticipate the art of Rodin by several decades<br />- 1/2 dozen sculptures exist today<br />- Lost d'faunt<br />- Abandons sculpture and for 30 years does sign/scenery painting for catholic ch
Richard Caton Woodville
Francis W. Edmunds
John Quidor
David Gilmore Blythe
William Sydney Mount Was the founder of American genre painting<br /><br />Unlike Allston and Wallace, he understood American Patronage, and aimed his aesthetic level at his audience - paints for the many<br /><br />Mount is interested in the African American and sympathetic
George Caleb Bingham
George Catlin
Eastman Johnson
Winslow Homer Like Eastman Johnson, he develops out of the Genre tradition of Mount and Bingham; but more original in his response to genre; moved towards Courbet's realism; chose pictorial material for its own sake and took out the narrative<br /><br />Replaces sentim
Thomas Eakins Philadelphia - little oppertunity to depict the nude; found context in sculpture<br /><br />Eakins makes a sign contribution to the history of photography but also motion photography<br /><br />Wasn't fashionable b/c interested in truth, like Goya (physic
Thomas Anshutz Direct slice of life, genre
William Michael Harnett Irish<br><br>Realism to nth degree - trompe l'oiel of Harnett (and Peto)
John Frederick Peto Realist, genre, still life
Albert Pinkham Ryder Non-realist; Romantic<br /><br />Classified with Eakins and Homer as major native artist<br /><br />Founding member of society of Am artists, new organ in 1877; despite little success in exhibiting, he was largely ignored by critics and public alike<br />
Ralph Blakelock *He/Ryder anticipate the modern movement in art<br><br>Derived work form inner vision; penchant for mysticism, visionary<br><br>More forgeries than originals<br><br>
Elihu Vedder In 1870s his work reflected this poetic mystery preferred by the Symbolists in France<br><br>1890s turns work to murals<br><br>becomes interested in William Blake, PreRaphs, 2 artists: Lawrence Ala Tedema, and Layden
John La Farge American, French abstraction<br /><br />Barbizon painters influence<br /><br />Mid 1870s began as muralist and coordinating artist for large arch interior projects<br /><br />*Leader in the rise of interior projects as well as mural art in America<br><br>
Kenyon Cox One of most famous painters and art ciritics of his day<br><br>Personification of academic classicism in America<br>Voice against modernism
Thomas Wilmer Dewing In 1880s worked in "an American rennaissance style"<br /><br />Grows up in Boston; Tonalist<br /><br />Infl by French academic painting as well as PreRaphsl noble virtues<br><br>Thru arch Samford White, his work was brought to attention of Lang
Abbott Handerson Thayer Bottic, Rapha, Titian etc. influence; saw self as part of American Renaissance<br><br>Critical acclaim, money
James McNeill Whistler Ex-pat, American<br /><br />"Art for art's sake" theory<br />Among 1st to grasp revolu implications for arts for arts sake; most + innovation since Brunel’s linear perspective<br /><br />Would become one of the world's best etchers period, with
John Singer Sargent Ex-pat; born in Florence<br />Studeid w/ Durand in Rome<br /><br />Influence of Velasquez/Spain; Whistler (early); Franz Halls brushwork<br /><br />Sometimes reveals an almost impress concern w/ atmosphere and light<br /><br />Goes to London and becomes t
Mary Cassatt *One of most significant female artists in America in 19th century<br /><br />Studies w/ Jerome (like Eakins); copies old master paintings, drawn to Velas and Halls, admired Courbet, Manet, and Degas<br /><br />only American to be a member of the impress,
John Haviland Most of his structures were Greek Revival<br>
Maximilian Godefroy 1st Gothic revival church in Am is by Godfroy Chapel of St. Mary's B
Richard Upjohn Published series of low cost designs "Upjohns Rural Architecture" in 1852; inspired many rural gothic revival churches<br /><br />Famous designer of Gothic revival churches, but shows early Xn, Romanesque, and Renaissance too<br><br>Reminiscent
James Renwick, Jr.
Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis Designed state capitals, college buildings, etc. (mostly Davis)<br><br>Fondness for combining Roman domes w/ Greek portico<br><br>*Firm reps conception of designer architect; before were builder architects
Minard Lafever
Henry Austin
A.J. Downing 1841 his books swept the field; "Cottage Residences" = + popular and influential of his publicaitons
George Carstenson and Charles Gildemeister
James Bogardus Major American contribution (he is credited) for development of iron cast building; leader in his field
John Gaynor and Daniel Badger HH Richardson followers<br>
Ware & van Brunt
Frank Furness Aslo picks up Victorian Gothic<br><br>Idiosyncratic style; originality
Henry Hobson Richardson No 1st rate practitioners besides him in Victorian Gothic<br /><br />Picks up Victorian gothic and converts it into the Romanesque; *Romanesque revival - older tradition<br /><br />*No Am arch never so dominated the world he lived in than Richardson<br><b
Richard Morris Hunt Traditional; Brq, French Ren, Ital Ren vocabulary and mixes them together
Firm of McKim, Mead and White
William Le Baron Jenney Story of Chi school starts with him
Burham and Root
Louis Sullivan (Adler and Sullivan) Called the 1st truly modern architect, father of the skyscraper<br><br>Form follows function<br><br><br /><br />
Frank Lloyd Wright Prophet of new arch freedom and new discipline; period/law unto himself; one of greatest architects<br><br>One of most original arch minds of 20th century<br /><br />Genius of relation of architecture w/ site as no other arch in history<br /><br />Influen
Augustus Saint-Gaudens Realism augmented w/ Ren<br><br>Irish; Ghiberti and Donatello = influences<br><br>
Daniel Chester French
Frederick Mac Monnies
George Grey Barnard best known sculptor of this period after August St Gaudins<br /><br />19th cent French influences; Rodin; Michelangelo
Frank Duveneck One of first to go to Munich; overnight sensation when returns; teaches<br /><br />Famous for portrait studies<br /><br />Influence of Halls, Remb, Manet, Courbet<br /><br />Quick worker, tonal
William Merritt Chase Indiana; Impressionism but would on/off to dark palette of Munich school<br /><br />One of leading figures of his day, character<br /><br />Began career as most popular/influential teacher of the period in Am<br /><br />Painter, teacher, partic in artist
Julian Alden Weir Am Impressionist<br /><br />Turns to Impression midway through career; converted via Monet influence; overcomes its formalism<br /><br />Studies w/ Jerome (Eakins, Cassatt)<br><br>He is considered one of the leading Am painters of the day, and also one of
Theodore Robinson *One of first Americans to work in Impress style; masterpieces of <-<br /><br />Studies with Durand (Sargent) and then Jerome<br /><br />Next door to Monet
John Twachtman Best known for impress landscapes but his painting style varied during career<br><br>ARH consider him Impress, and one of the more personal/experimental styles of generation<br><br>One of founding members "10 painters" NY
Childe Hassam Prom/prolific Am impressionist; __ scenes and coastal scenes<br /><br />Instrumental in presenting French impressionism to Am collectors, and museums (Cassatt and Hassam and Twackman)<br /><br />Founding member 10 Painters<br /><br>Begins his career drawi
Robert Henri Leader of Ashcan<br /><br />Studies under Anschwatz; but failed to observe Euro art<br /><br />Teaches Penn Acad?, meets group of young illustrators - Luks, Shin, Sloan, and Glackens - urged to go abroad (Philly)<br><br>Simple formula and picturesque subj
William Glackens Social life/fashion<br><br>Goes w/ Luks to Cuba - war<br><br>Illustration aspects
Everett Shinn ?Sliding into formula can be seen in HIS art; followed Euro styles; fave painter was Degas
George Luks Loud; Became known as the most colorful figure among Ashcan realists<br>
George Bellows ~ officialy exhibit w/ the 8, but assoc w/ them<br><br>He made living as a portrait painter; does some of these paintings as lithographies (~ do printing); moves onto other subjects; his fame rests w/ boxing pictures
John Sloan *He is remembered as an American Hogarth for his ability to capture interesting people w/ gross character and to successfully place them on the canvs<br><br>On the most personal terms w/ Henri and the most influenced by Henri<br /><br />Sloan is the most
Maurice Prendergast 1st true American modernist<br><br>American Post-Impressionist in oil/water color<br />Departure in mood; still realism?; still member of 8<br />Born Canada, Boston<br /><br />Reminds of Degas - very committed to the monoprint/monotype<br /><br />Critics
Ernest Lawson Impressionistic + realism; brings lyrical to French impressionists style (transforms it)<br /><br />Canadian American<br><br>FL landscapes
Arthur B. Davies *1st American symbolist<br /><br />Principle organizer of the 1913 Armory show, member of the 8<br>Best known for ethereal figure paintings; fantasy<br><br>
Edward Hopper Realist; Wc, etcher, oil<br /><br />Calculated designs rep his vision of American modern life; urban, isolation<br /><br />Like Vermeer ^ (specialized in the pensieve woman)<br /><br />Studies w/ Henri<br><br>1930s focusing on everyday stuff - anticipates
Reginald Marsh Like Hopper, takes up print making; notable for depictions of city life NY; born Paris<br /><br />Influenced by the drawings of Raphael, Da Vinci and Michelangelo<br /><br />Meets Benton... + Hopper + him = print makers<br /><br />*Etchings were his first
Stieglitz Over 50 year career span he was instrumental to making photography an accepted art form<br /><br />Also known for galleries (291) where showcases Avant Garde Euro artists
Thomas Hart Benton At forefront of regionalist movement; thought art should be socially relevant<br /><br />Struck by Cubism/synchronism*<br /><br />Muralist, painter, print maker<br /><br />Lasting impressions = energetic, elongated figures (El Greco, Tint, Michel) = Old M
John Steuart Curry Wanted to represent tru Am scenes/values; 3rd leader<br><br>
Grant Wood Socialist; praiseworthy b/c purely American; free of Cubism/Fauvist
Stuart Davis Modernist<br><br>Tried to make modern Am art style; Jazz, modern industrial scene<br>Synthetic Cubism influence<br><br>"cool reporter of an arena of hockey fans"
Marcel Duchamp
Man Ray (Dada) American, influenced by Duchamp<br><br>As experimental as Duchamp; friends<br><br>Film, photographer, fashion phot<br>1922 publishes 1st book "Delightful Fields" w/ Rayograms<br>
Joseph Cornell: Surrealist<br><br>Shadow Boxes; inspired by collages by Max Ernst<br><br>shared the surrealist interest in the beauty that occus in the chance encounter, unexpected settings
Louise Nevelson (Hans Hoffmann) *Before Nevelson, no 20th century important women sculptors!<br><br>"an environmental sculptor"<br /><br />Assists Diego Rivera for a while in NY in painting of Rockefeller Center Mural<br /><br />Sculptor at age 40<br /><br />Cubist approach, k
Georgia O’Keeffe 1920s found most important representative of realism, O'Keefe<br><br>Leading artist in Stieglitz group<br>Also surrealist<br><br>1st show = 291<br><br>Vocabulary of small natural forms in magnified close up<br><br>Female genetalia = mother nature<br><br>*
Marsden Hartley (Der Blaue Reiter) Kandinsky influence<br><br>Blue Ryder, Futurism, Cubism... etc.
Charles Demuth Realist/precisionist*<br>Used to depict urban/industrial architecture<br><br>Stiegletz group, friend Duchamp
Alexander Calder Mobile; kinetic sculpture<br>-originally Constructivists/Russia<br><br>Comes close ot Mondrian<br><br>*Surrealist at end of day; poetic possibilities; connection w/ Miro
Arthur Garfield Dove Another pioneer of art in America b/c magazine illustrator<br><br>Matisse influence, liked Fauvism<br><br>Showed at 291<br><br>Collage/assemblage
Lescaze and Howe
Mies van der Rohe German; Gropius; colleague; Chicago<br /><br />Spiritual heir of Mondrian (proportions/spatial relationships)<br><br>Differences of buildings = details
American Sculpture Americn sculpt was born/matured on the one hand 1825 and the other 1875
American Landscape Landscape for its own sake = basis for American art; emerging support for not American landscape but American art<br><br>Around mid century French critics like Boudelaire still accepted the hierarchy - genre/landscape at the bottom
American Genre Painting Most effective genre paintings of 19th century were derived from everyday scenes of Am life<br /><br />2 major artists in this theme are Mount (East Coast) and Bingham (West)<br /><br />John Kremel is the first significant genre painter in America (German
American 19th Century Painting 2 great watercolorists in Am in 19th-20th century would be Homer and John Singer Sargent; twin peaks!<br /><br />Homer and Akins are the twin peaks of late 19th century (painting?)<br /><br />Late 19th century examples there is usually something we didn't
Whistler and Eakins Eakins and Whistler have a good deal in common; both Americans who studied in Paris, both admired Courbet, both affected by many of the same art theories, but totally different styles/aesthetics, Eakins = realist, Whistler = formalist; (uproar at same tim
Architecture "7 Lamps of Architecture" America's 1st handbook to include illustrations of the Greek orders<br /><br />Gothic was the most widespread and influential in 19th century; esp for churches<br /><br />Mid century arch pattern books = complete design
Sculpture National Sculpture Society, formed to promote the cause of sculpture, sponsor annual exhibitions and to maintain high quality in Am sculpture
19th-20th Century Painting Last 3 decades of 19th cent, ceased to be governed by realism<br /><br />After 1870 young artists went to Paris vs. Rome vs. Munich and Dossoldorf<br /><br />Munich is now considered the art capital of Europe<br />1872 40 students from Am in Munich "
The Eight Transition, change; done w/ corrupt w/ fantasies of golden age<br /><br />1st group of Am artists to advocate a new Democractic art; painting must reflect the artists's involvement w/ life as life is lived<br /><br />1st exhibition in 1908<br /><br />Lead
20th Century American Art The 8 play in introducing Am public to realism, and armory to introd to Avant Garde, you can say these are two pivotal points in Am 20th cent art<br /><br />20s-30s regionalist schools of painting<br />No one style to bind these artists together<br />West
Charles Sheeler *Archetype precisionist<br><br>Painter and photographer<br />Machine age imagery, precisionist*<br />Attention to detail, insisted on accuracy<br />Strong dependence on photos<br /><br />Most realistic/exact copy of photograph of his source material<br><b
International Style coined by Henry Hitchcock and Arch Phillip Johnson for avant garde arch in Europe 20s/30s; late in America... end of 30s
Van der Rohe German, Gropius' colleague, Chicago<br><br>In many ways he is the spiritual heir of Mondrain (proportions/spatial relationships)<br><br>Whether designing schools, apt, or office buildings, he uses the same simple rect<br><br>Love for materials<br><br>Diff
Created by: takeshertime