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Karens Cardio Patho

Cardiovascular Pathophysiology studies for Karens class

QuestionAnswer
Space containing small amount of fluid Pericardial Cavity
Slight delay in conduction at the AV node going to AV Bundle(Bundle of His) allowing for complete _______ __________. ventricular filling
These waves on ECG mark the depolarization of ventricles... QRS waves
Responsible for signalling cardiovascular control center of changes in systemic BP Baroreceptors
When secretions of epinephrine increase, heart rate increases leading to increased ______ ________ heart contractions
The first arteries to branch off of the aorta; immediately distal to aortic valve Coronary arteries
With each contraction of the heart left ventricular output is the same as ______ _________ _______. Right ventricular output
The right Ventricle sends blood to... The lungs
The left ventricle sends blood to... The body
The ability of the heart to increase cardiac output whenever needed is Cardiac Reserve (Cardiac Function)
Looks at the volume of venous return; how much coming in Preload
Reflex adjustment that controls localized vasodilation/vasoconstriction in the arterioles Auto regulation
Diagnostic test for cardiovascular function; used to demonstrate, an abnormality, in movement of heart valves; records heart valve movements, blood flow, and cardiac output. Echocardiography
Drug therapy used to treat heart failure; improves cardiac efficiency, slowing heart rate and increasing force of cardiac contraction Digoxin
Drug therapy; taken in small doses on a continual basis to reduce platelet adhesion Asprin
General term for all types of arterial changes; looks at degenerative changes in small arteries and arterioles Arteriosclerosis
Major factor contributing to atheroma formation; transport of cholesterol from liver to cells Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Risk factors for Atherosclerosis that CANNOT be changed; including age, gender and genetic/familial factors Non-modifiable
Risk factors for Athersclerosis that CAN be changed; include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, poorly controlled hypertension, and combination of oral contraceptives and smoking Modifiable
Risk factor for Atherosclerosis; stimulates/promotes platelet adhesion cigarette smoking
Rerouting blood flow around obstructed blood vessel, using a grafted blood vessel Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Early warning signs/symptoms include angina, hypotension, pallor and dyspnea Heart attack
Certain changes in this diagnostic test can confirm the presence of a myocardial infarction ECG
Complication of MI; usually due to ventricular arrythmias and fibrillation Sudden death
Degree of heartblock in AV node abnormality; conduction delayed of AV node resulting in intermittent missed ventricular contractions;every 2nd to 3rd beat is dropped at AV node Second degress
Ventricular conduction abnormality; very rapid heart rate/ reduces cardiac output because ventricular filling is decreased Ventricular tachycardia
Treatment of cardiac dysrhythmias; SA nodal problems or total heart block require this pacemaker
Inability of heart to pump enough blood to meet metabolic needs of the body Congestive Heart Failure
Reacting to decrease cardiac output increase secretion of renin aldosterone secretions; Increased heart rate and Oliguria Compensatory Mechanisms
Another compensation measure to help the heart not working as it should decrease in urinary output Oliguria
Signs and sypmtoms: systemic signs of right sided failure; Dependent edema in feet, legs, or buttocks; the edema will be found in lower body Congestive Heart Failure
Feeding difficulties are often the first sign of this; failure to gain weight or meet developemental guidelines also follows Childhood CHF
Used to decrease renin secretions and decrease vasoconstriction in chilhood CHF ACE Inhibitors
These defects can be detected by the presence of a murmur Congenital Heart Defects
Signs and symptoms: Pallor, dyspnea on exertion, clubbed fingers, Delayed growth and development Congenital Heart Defects
Signs and symptoms: Tachycardia with very rapid sleeping pulse and frequent pulse deficit, squatting position (toddlers and older children) which modifies blood flow, Intolerance for excercise and exposure to cold weather Congenital Heart Defects
A.K.A A whole in the heart Ventricular Septal Defects
Defect that causes blood to flow from the left ventricle to the right Ventricular Septal Defect
Valvular Defect; Causes blood to (go backward) regurgitate Incompetent Valves
Are given to patients with certain congenital heart defects or damaged heart valves immediately before invasive procedures to prevent formation of infective endocarditis Prophylactic Antibacterial drugs
A friction rub is associated with this due to no fluid or something (gritty) in fluid; reduction of cardiac output due to this excessive fluid within the Pericardial cavity itself; Pericarditis
Decreases the hearts ability to expand and fill... Pericarditis
This arterial disease's cause is Idiopathic (unknown) Primary (Essential) Hypertension
How many forms of hypertension are there? 3
Names/forms of which Arterial Disease?Primary (essential/idiopathic) Secondary Malignant/Resistant Hypertension
Kidneys,Heart, Brain, Retina; these areas are most frequently damaged by... Hypertension
Antihypertensive medication's most common adverse effect is this; not umcommon in elderly; Stand up/sit down and BP lowers Orthostatic Hypotension
Sign/Symptom of Peripheral Vascular Disease (atherosclerosis): Leg Pain due to circulation not being able to keep up with demand Intermittent Claudication
Tear in intimal lining; allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall Dissecting Aneurysm
True/False: Aneurysms always require surgery... False
Manifestation of aneurysms result from compression of _______ ________. Adjacent structures
Fever, malaise, leukocytosis; sytemic signs for... Thrombophlebitis and Phlebothrombosis;
Follows MI when a large portion of myocardium is damaged Shock
Created by: Becky Lester Becky Lester on 2011-12-07



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