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What type of cancer is most head and neck cancer? squamous cell cancer (90%)
Head and neck cancers that start in the glandular cells are called what? adenocarcinomas
Asymptomatic masses in the head and neck of ppl over 40 are what until proven otherwise? cancer
what is the most common skin cancer? basal cell carcinoma-least likely to metastasize.
Squamous cell carcinoma usually metastasizes to where? the lymph-->lungs-->liver and bones
What is a benign tumor that arises from the vestibular division of the 8th CN from schwann cells? Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma)
What are the symptoms of acoustic neuromas? -gradual unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with tinnitus. -10% have sudden hearing loss. -vertigo
How do you diagnose acoustic neuromas? CT or MRI with contrast
How do you treat acoustic neuromas? surgery
describe the location of malignant tumors of the ear? 85%-of the auricle 10%-in the external canal 5%-middle ear and mastoid
Symptoms of malignant tumors in the ear? -deep boring bone pain, disproportionate to what is seen on exam. -may have conductive hearing loss -
What can cause malignant tumors of the nose and sinuses? exposure to nickle, dust, Thorotrast(contrast medium). Usually not from tobacco.
what is the common age/gender of nose/sinus cancer? over 50yo, male/female 2:1 ratio.
What is the main type of nose/sinus cancer? squamous cell
What is a common finding for Nasopharyneal cancer? -asymptomatic enlarged cervical node or a unilateral serous otitis media in an adult. -exposure to Epstein-Barr virus
Where is adenocarcinoma usually found? ethmoid sinus in patients under 40yo. It is usually slow growing.
Describe esthesioneuroblastoma. rare, found in young adults in mid 20's. Usually found in the roof of the mouth.
What are the symptoms of esthesioneuroblastoma? unilateral nasal obstruction, loss of smell, epistaxis
Describe juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. benign and found in males 7-19. It invade sthe base of the skull and can cause massive bleeding and death. Obstruction and epistaxis are most common symptoms.
What are major contributors to laryngeal cancers? smoking and alcohol
Laryngeal cancer is almost exclusively what type? squamous cell
To determine laryngeal cancer you must do 5/6 steps. What are they? 1-palpation of cervical soft tissue 2-indirect laryngoscopy with mirror 3-direct larygoscopy with biopsy 4-xray 5-CT or MRI 6-contrast studies(barium/upper GI)
Describe glottic cancer. occurs at the cords. Causes hoarseness, scratchy pain, dysphagia, cough, and stridor. PE shows irregular white/red growths-cauliflower look.
Describe subglottic cancer. Symptoms are same as glottic, may see a superficial ulceration
Describe cancer in the marginal zone. -involves the aryepiglottic folds -proliferative, fungating with central ulcerations and heaped up margins.
Oral cancer accounts for 50% of cancers in what populations? Asian and Indian populations
40% of all head and neck cancers occur where? Oral cavity
What are risk factors for oral cancer? -tobacco use -heavy alcohol use -chewing betel nut -nutritional factors -genetic factors -sun exposure
Describe lip cancer. found in 50-70yo. 95% males. fair skinned complexion, with sun exposure and pipe smoking as RFs.
Describe Mouth/buccal cancer. accounts for 34% of oral cancers. will see red ulcerated patch that is non-healing and painless with rolled borders.
Describe tongue cancer. presents late stage on the anterior 2/3 of tongue. Can have serious odynophagia or otalgia.
What is leukopakia? white, plaque-like lesion. tends to be pre-malignant or malignant.
What is erythroplakia? red plaque-like lesion. more commonly malignant than leukoplakia.
Created by: emeliza87