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FINAL Chap 5-8 terms

End of Chapter 5-8 terms

ACE inhibitor drugs Medication that produces vasodilation and decreases blood pressure.
aneurysm Weakness in the wall of an artery that results in localized widening of the artery.
aneurysmectomy Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm.
angiitis Inflammation of vessels.
angina pectoris Severe chest pain with a sensation of constriction around the heart. Caused by a deficiency of oxygen to the heart muscle.
angiogram Record of a vessel
angiography Process of taking an X-ray of blood or lymphatic vessels after injection of a radiopaque substance.
angioplasty surgical repair of a vessel
angiospasm Involuntary muscle contraction of a vessel.
angiostenosis narrowing of a vessel
antiarrhythmic Controls cardiac arrhythmias by altering nerve impulses within the heart.
anticoagulant Substance that prevents or delays the clotting or coagulation of blood.
antilipidemic Reduces amount of cholesterol and lipids in the bloodstream; treats hyperlipidemia.
aorta The largest artery in the body. It is located in the mediastinum and carries oxygenated blood away from the left side of the heart.
aortic pertaining to aorta
aortic valve The semilunar valve between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta in the heart. It prevents blood from flowing backwards into the ventricle
apex Directional term meaning tip or summit.
arrhythmia Irregularity in the heartbeat or action.
arterial Pertaining to the artery.
arterial anastomosis Surgical joining together of two arteries; performed if an artery is severed or if a damaged section of an artery is removed.
arteries The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
arterioles The smallest branches of the arteries. They carry blood to the capillaries.
arteriorrhexis ruptured artery
arteriosclerosis hardening of arteries
atherectomy Excision of fatty substance.
atheroma tumor-like collection of fatty substances
atherosclerosis The most common form of arteriosclerosis. Caused by the formation of yellowish plaques of cholesterol buildup on the inner walls of the arteries.
atria The two upper chambers of the heart. The left atrium receives blood returning from the lungs, and the right atrium receives blood returning from the body.
atrial pertaining to the atria
atrioventricular bundle In the heart, conducts the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node into the ventricles.
atrioventricular node This area at the junction of the right atrium and ventricle receives the stimulus from the sinoatrial node and sends the impulse to the ventricles through the bundle of His.
atrioventricular valve The heart valves located between an atria and a ventricle. Includes the tricuspid valve in the right side of the heart and the bicuspid or mitral valve in the left side of the heart.
auscultation Listening to the sounds within the body by using a stethoscope.
autonomic nervous system portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves to the internal organs that function involuntarily. It regulates the functions of glands, the adrenal medulla, heart, & smooth muscle tissue & is divided into 2 parts: sympathetic & parasympathetic.
beta blocker drugs Medication that treats hypertension and angina pectoris by lowering the heart rate.
bicuspid valve valve between the left atrium and ventricle. It prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium. It has two cusps or flaps. It is also called the mitral valve.
blood pressure Measurement of the pressure that is exerted by blood against the walls of a blood vessel.
blood vessels The closed system of tubes that conducts blood throughout the body. It consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
bradycardia Abnormally slow heart rate, below 60 bpm.
bundle branch block Occurs when the electrical impulse is blocked from travelling down the bundle of His or bundle branches. Results in the ventricles beating at a different rate than the atria. Also called a heart block.
bundle branches Part of the conduction system of the heart; the electrical signal travels down the interventricular septum.
bundle of His The bundle of His is located in the interventricular septum. It receives the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node and distributes it through the ventricular walls causing them to contract simultaneously.
calcium channel blocker drugs Medication that treats hypertension, angina pectoris, and congestive heart failure by causing the heart to beat less forcefully and less often.
capillary The smallest blood or lymphatic vessel. Blood capillaries are very thin to allow gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the blood and the tissues. Lymph capillaries collect lymph fluid from the tissues and carry it to the larger lymph vessels.
capillary bed The network of capillaries found in a given tissue or organ.
carbon dioxide A waste product of cellular energy production. It is removed from the cells by the blood and eliminated from the body by the lungs.
cardiac pertaining to the heart
cardiac arrest When the heart stops beating and circulation ceases
cardiac catheterization Passage of a thin tube (catheter) through an arm vein and the blood vessel leading into the heart. Done to detect abnormalities, to collect cardiac blood samples, and to determine the pressure within the cardiac area.
cardiac enzymes Complex protein molecules found only in heart muscle. Cardiac enzymes are taken by blood sample to determine the amount of the heart disease or damage.
cardiac muscle involuntary heart muscle
cardiac scan Patient is given radioactive thallium intravenously and then scanning equipment is used to visualize the heart; it is especially useful in determining myocardial damage.
cardiologist Doctor specializing in conditions of the cardiovascular system.
cardiology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the cardiovascular system.
cardiomegaly abnormally enlarged heart
cardiomyopathy General term for a disease of the myocardium that may be caused by alcohol, abuse, parasites, viral infection, and congestive heart failure.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation Emergency treatment provided by persons trained in CPR and given to patients when their repirations and heart stop. CPR provides oxygen to the brain, heart, and other vital organs until medical treatment can restore a normal heart and pulmonary function.
cardiorrhexis Ruptured heart
cardiotonic Strengthens the heart muscle.
catheter A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays.
circulatory system System that transports blood to all areas of the body. The organs of the circulatory system include the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). Also called the cardiovascular system.
coarctation of the aorta Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta.
congenital septal defect Defect, present at birth, in the wall separating two chambers of the heart. Results in a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood being carried to the surrounding tissues. There can be an atrial septal defect (ASD) & a ventricular septal defect (VSD).
congestive heart failure Pathological condition of the heart in which there is a reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart. Results in weakness, breathlessness, and edema.
coronary Pertaining to the heart.
coronary arteries A group of three arteries that branch off the aorta and carry blood to the myocardium.
coronary artery bypass graft Open-heart surgery in which a blood vessel is grafted to route blood around the point of constriction in a diseased coronary artery.
coronary artery disease Insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle due to an obstruction of one or more coronary arteries; may be caused by atherosclerosis and may cause angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.
cusps The leaflets or flaps of a heart valve.
defibrillation A procedure that converts serious irregular heartbeats, such as fibrillation, by giving electric shocks to the heart.
deoxygenated Blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content.
diastole The period of time during which a heart chamber is relaxed.
diastolic pressure The lower pressure within blood vessels during the relaxation phase of the heart beat.
diuretic Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes the loss of water & salt from the body. Can assist in lowering blood pressure; therefore, these drugs are used to treat hypertension.
Doppler ultrasonography Measurement of sound-wave echoes as they bounce off tissues and organs to produce an image. Can assist in determining heart and blood vessel damage.
echocardiography Noninvasive diagnostic method using ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures; cardiac valve activity can be evaluated using this method.
electrocardiogram Record of the electrical activity of the heart. Useful in the diagnosis of abnormal cardiac rhythm and heart muscle (myocardium) damage.
electrocardiography Process of recording the electrical activity of the heart.
embolectomy Surgical removal of an embolus or clot from a blood vessel.
embolus blood clot
endarterectomy Removal of the inside layer of an artery.
endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining layer of the heart. May be due to microorganisms or to an abnormal immunological response.
endocardium The inner layer of the heart, which is very smooth and lines the chambers of the heart.
epicardium The outer layer of the heart. It forms part of the pericardium.
extracorporeal circulation During open heart surgery, the routing of blood to a heart-lung machine so it an be oxygenated and pumped to the rest of the body.
fibrillation Abnormal quivering or contractions of heart fibers. When this occurs within the fibers of the ventricle of the heart, arrest and death can occur. Emergency equipment to defibrillate, or convert the heart to a normal beat, is necessary.
flutter An arrhythmia in which the atria beat too rapidly, but in a regular pattern.
heart Organ of the cardiovascular system that contracts to pump blood through the blood vessels.
heart transplantation Replacement of a diseased or malfunctioning heart with a donor's heart.
heart valve prolapse The cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards through the valve when the heart chamber contracts. Most commonly occurs in the mitral valve, but may affect any of the heart valves.
heart valve stenosis The cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too stiff. Therefore, they are unable to open fully, making it difficult for blood to flow through, or to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards. This condition may affect any of the heart valves.
hemorrhoids Varicose veins in the rectum.
Holter monitor Portable ECG monitor worn by the patient for a period of a few hours to a few days to assess the heart and pulse activity as the person goes through the activities of daily living.
hypertension High blood pressure.
hypotension low blood pressure
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator A device implanted in the heart that delivers an electrical shock to restore a normal heart rhythm. Particularly useful for persons who experience ventricular fibrillation.
infarct Area of tissue within an organ that undergoes necrosis (death) following the loss of blood supply.
inferior vena cava The branch of the venae cavae that drains blood from the abdomen and lower body.
interatrial Pertaining to between the atria.
interatrial septum The wall or septum that divides the left and right atria.
interventricular Pertaining to between the ventricles
interventricular septum The wall or septum that divides the left and right ventricles.
intracoronary artery stent Placing a stent within a coronary artery to treat coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis.
ischemia Localized and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to an obstruction of the circulation.
ligation and stripping Surgical treatment for varicose veins; the damaged vein is tied off (ligation) and removed (stripping).
lumen The space, cavity, or channel within a tube or tubular organ or structure in the body.
mitral valve A valve between the left atrium and ventricle in the heart. It prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium. It is also called the bicuspid valve because it has two cusps or flaps.
murmur An abnormal heart sound as a soft blowing sound or a harsh click. They may be soft and heard only with a stethoscope, or so loud they can be heard several feet away.
myocardial Pertaining to heart muscle.
myocardial infarction Condition caused by partial or complete occlusion or closing of one or more coronary arteries. Symptoms include severe chest pain or heavy pressure in the middle of the chest. Delay in treatment could result in death. Also called MI or heart attack.
myocarditis inflammation of the heart muscle
myocardium The middle layer of the muscle. It is thick and composed of cardiac muscle. This layer produces the heart contraction.
orthostatic hypotension The sudden drop in blood pressure a person experiences when standing up suddenly.
oxygen Gaseous element absorbed by the blood from the air sacs in the lungs. It is necessary for cells to make energy.
oxygenated Term for blood with a high oxygen level.
pacemaker Another name for the sinoatrial node of the heart.
pacemaker implantation Device that substitutes for the natural pacemaker of the heart. It controls the beating of the heart w/rhythmic electrical impulses.
palpitations Pounding, racing heartbeat.
parietal pericardium The outer layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart.
patent ductus arteriosus Congenital heart anomaly in which the opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta fails to close at birth. This condition requires surgery.
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty Method for treating localized coronary artery narrowing. A balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the coronary artery and inflated to dilate the narrow blood vessel.
pericarditis Inflammatory process or disease of the pericardium.
pericardium The double-walled outer sac around the heart. The inner layer of the pericardium is called the epicardium, the outer layer is the heart itself. This sac contains pericardial fluid that reduces friction caused by the heart beating.
peripheral vascular disease Any abnormal condition affecting blood vessels outside the heart; symptoms may include pain, pallor, numbness, and loss of circulation and pulses.
phlebitis Inflammation of a vein.
phlebogram Record of veins
plaque Gummy mass of microorganisms that grows on the crowns of teeth and spreads along the roots. It is colorless and transparent.
polyarteritis Inflammation of many arteries.
pulmonary artery The large artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lung.
pulmonary circulation The pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. Then it carries oxygenated blood back to the left side of the heart.
pulmonary valve The semilunar valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery in the heart. It prevents blood from flowing backwards into the ventricle.
pulmonary vein Large vein that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
pulse Expansion and contraction produced by blood as it moves through an artery. The pulse can be taken at several pulse points throughout the body where an artery is close to the surface.
Purkinje fibers Part of the conduction system of the heart; found in the ventricular myocardium.
Raynaud's phenomenon Periodic ischemic attacks affecting the extremities of the body, especially the fingers, toes, ears, & nose. The affected extremities become cyanotic & painful. These attacks are brought on by arterial constriction due to extreme cold or emotional stress.
regurgitation Return of fluids and solids from the stomach into the mouth. Similar to emesis but without the force.
semilunar valves The heart valves located between the ventricles and the great arteries leaving the heart. The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle, and the pulmonary artery and the aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
serum lipoprotein the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.
sinoatrial node Also called the pacemaker of the heart. It is an area of the right atria that initiates the electrical pulse that causes the heart to contract.
sphygmomanometer Instrument for measuring blood pressure. Also referred to as a blood pressure cuff.
stent A stainless steel tube placed within a blood vessel or a duct to widen the lumen.
stethoscope Instrument for listening to body sounds, such as the chest, heart, or intestines.
stress testing Method for evaluating cardiovascular fitness. The patient is placed on a treadmill or a bicycle and then subjected to steadily increasing levels of work. An EKG and oxygen levels are taken while the patient exercises.
superior vena cava The branch of the vena cavae that drains blood from the chest and upper body.
systemic circulation The systematic circulation transports oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the cells of the body and then back to the right side of the heart.
systole The period of time during which a heart chamber is contracting.
systolic pressure The maximum pressure within blood vessels during a heart contraction.
tachycardia Abnormally fast heart rate, over 100 bpm.
tetralogy of Fallot Combination of four congenital anomalies: pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular septal defect, abnormal blood supply to the aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Needs immediate surgery to correct.
thrombolytic Able to dissolve existing blood clots.
thrombolytic therapy Drugs, such as streptokinase or tissue-type plasminogen activator, are injected into a blood vessel to dissolve clots and restore blood flow.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein that results in the formation of blood clots within the vein.
thrombus A blood clot
tricuspid valve A valve between the right atrium and ventricle of the heart. It prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium. A tricuspid valve has three cusps or flaps.
valve replacement Excision of a diseased heart valve and replacement with an artificial valve.
valvoplasty surgical repair of a valve
valvular pertaining to valves
valvulitis inflammation of valves
varicose veins Swollen and distended veins, usually in the legs.
vascular pertaining to veins
vasoconstrictor Contracts smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels; raises blood pressure.
vasodilator Produces a relaxation of blood vessels to lower blood pressure.
veins Blood vessels of the cardiovascular system that carry blood toward the heart.
venography Process of taking an X-ray tracing of a vein.
venous pertaining to veins
ventricles The two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it back out of the heart. The left ventricle pumps blood to the body, and the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs.
ventricular pertaining to ventricles
venules The smallest veins. Venules receive deoxygenated blood leaving the capillaries
visceral pericardium The inner layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart.
ABO system The major system of blood typing.
acquired immunity The protective response of the body to a specific pathogen.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease involving a defect in the cell-mediated immunity system. A syndrome of opportunistic infections occurring in the final stages of HIV infections. This virus attacks & destroys T4 lymphocytes, reducing the person’s ability to fight infection
active acquired immunity Immunity developing after direct exposure to a pathogen.
adenoidectomy Excision of the adenoids.
adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids.
adenoids Another term for pharyngeal tonsils. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
agglutinate Clumping together to form small clusters. Platelets agglutinate to start the clotting process.
agranulocyte nongranular cell
AIDS-related complex (ARC) Early stage of AIDS. There is a positive test for the virus, but only mild symptoms of weight loss, fatigue, skin rash, and anorexia
albumin A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream. It is abnormal for albumin to be in the urine.
allergen an antigen that causes an allergic reactionfibrinogen fiber producing
allergist physician who specializes in testing for and treating allergies
allergy hypersensitivity to a common substance in the environment or to a medication
amino acids An organic substance found in plasma. It is used by cells to build proteins.
anaphylactic shock life threatening condition resulting from severe allergic reaction. Instances that may trigger this reaction include bee stings, medications, or the ingestion of foods. Circulatory and respiratory problems occur.
anaphylaxis Severe reaction to an antigen.
anemia A large group of conditions characterized by a reduction in the number of red blood cells or amount of hemoglobin in blood. Less oxygen reaches tissues.
antibody Protein material produced in the body as a response to the invasion of a foreign substance.
antibody-mediated immunity The production of antibodies by B cells in response to an antigen. Also called humoral immunity.
anticoagulant Substance that prevents blood clot formation. Blood thinners
antigen Substance that is capable of inducing the formation of an antibody. The antibody then interacts with the antigen in the antigen-antibody reaction.
antigen-antibody complex Combination of the antigen with its specific antibody; increases susceptibility to phagocytosis and immunity.
antihemorrhagic Substance that prevents or stops hemorrhaging. Hemostatic agent
antihistamine blocks the effect of histamine released by the body during an allergic reaction
antiplatelet agents Substance that interferes with the action of platelets. Prolongs bleeding time. Used to prevent heart attacks or strokes.
aplastic anemia Severe form of anemia that develops as a consequence of loss of functioning red bone marrow. Results in decrease in number of all the formed elements.
autoimmune disease a disease resulting from the body’s immune system attacking its own cells as if they were pathogens. Examples include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis
autologous transfusion Procedure for collecting and storing a patient’s own blood several weeks prior to the actual need. It can then be used to replace blood after a surgery.
axilllary Commonly referred to as the armpit. There is a collection of lymph nodes in this area that drains each arm.
bacteria Primitive, single-celled microorganisms that are present everywhere. Some are capable of causing disease in humans.
basophil A granulocyte white blood cell that releases histamine and heparin in damaged tissues. Basophilis
B cells Common name for B lymphocytes, responds to foreign antigens by producing protective antibodies.blood clot
bilirubin Waste product produced from destruction of worn-out red blood cells; disposed of by the liver.
blood clot The hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris that is the end result of hemostasis or the blood clotting process.
blood culture and sensitivity (C&S) Sample of blood is incubated to check for bacterial growth. If bacteria are present, it is identified and tested to see what antibiotics it is sensitive to.
blood sinuses Spread-out blood vessels within the spleen that result in slow-moving blood flow.
blood transfusion Artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream
blood typing The blood of one person is different from another's due to the presence of antigens on the surface of erythrocytes. The major method of typing blood is the ABO system, w/types A, B, O, & AB. Another method of typing is Rh factor w/ two types, Rh+ & Rh-.
B lymphocytes The humoral immunity cells, which respond to foreign antigens by producing protective antibodies. Simply referred to as B cells.
bone marrow aspiration Sample of bone marrow is removed by aspiration with a needle and examined for diseases such as leukemia or aplastic anemia
bone marrow transplant (BMT) Patient receives red bone marrow from a donor after the patient’s own bone marrow has been destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy
calcium An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones, muscles, and nerves.
cancerous tumor Malignant growths in the body.
cell-mediated immunity Immunity that results from the activation of sensitized T lymphocytes. The immune response causes antigens to be destroyed by the direct action of cells. Also called cellular immunity.
cellular immunity Another term for cell-mediated immunity.
cervical pertaining to the neck
coagulate To convert from a liquid to a gel or solid
complete blood count (CBC) Combination of blood tests including: red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell differential, & platelet count.
corticosteroids a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties. Particularly useful in treating autoimmune diseases
creatinine A waste product of muscle metabolism.
cross infection Occurs when a person, either a patient or health care worker, acquires a pathogen from another patient or health care worker.
cytotoxic Pertaining to poisoning cells.
dyscrasia General term indicating presence of a disease affecting blood
elephantiasis Inflammation, obstruction, and destruction of the lymph vessels resulting in enlarged tissues due to edema
enucleated The loss of a cell's nucleus.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) a blood test for an antibody to the AIDS virus. A positive test means that the person has been exposed to the virus. There may be a false-positive reading, and then the Western blot test would be used to verify the results
eosinophil A granulocyte white blood cell that destroy parasites and increases during allergic reactions.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate Blood test to determine the rate at which mature red blood cells settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. This is the indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease.
erythrocyte red cell
erythrocyte sedimentation rate Blood test to determine the rate at which mature red blood cells settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. An indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease.
erythrocytosis too many red cells
erythropenia too few red (cells)
erythropoiesis red (cell) producing
fats Lipid molecules transported throughout the body dissolved in the blood.
fibrin Whitish protein formed by the action of thrombin and fibrinogen, which is the basis for the clotting of blood.
fibrinogen Blood protein that is essential for clotting to take place.
fibrinolysis destruction of fibers
fibrinous pertaining to fibers
formed elements The solid, cellular portion of blood. It consists of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
fungi Organisms found in the Kingdom Fungi. Some are capable of causing disease in humans, such as yeast infections or histoplasmosis.
gamma globulin Protein component of blood containing antibodies that help to resist infection.
globulins One type of protein found dissolved in the plasma.
glucose The form of sugar used by the cells of the body to make energy. It is transported to the cells in the blood.
graft vs. host disease serious complication of bone marrow transplant (graft). Immune cells from the donor bone marrow attack the recipient’s (host’s) tissues
granulocyte granular cell
hematic pertaining to blood
hematinic Substance that increases the number of erythrocytes or amount of hemoglobin in the blood
hematocrit (HCT, Hct, crit) Blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells within the total volume of blood
hematologist blood specialist
hematology Branch of medicine specializing in treating diseases and conditions of the blood
hematoma Collection of blood under skin as a result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. Bruise.
hematopoiesis blood producing
hemoglobin blood protein
hemolysis blood destruction
hemolytic Destruction of blood.
hemolytic anemia Anemia that develops as the result of excessive loss of erythrocytes
hemolytic reaction Destruction of a patient’s erythrocytes that occurs when receiving a transfusion of an incompatible blood type. Transfusion reaction.
hemophilia Hereditary blood disease in which blood-clotting time is prolonged due to a lack of one vital clotting factor.
hemorrhage rapid flow of blood
hemostasis To stop bleeding or stagnation of blood flow through the tissues
hives appearance of wheals as part of an allergic reaction
Hodgkin’s disease Also called Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes Named after Thomas Hodgkin, a British physician, who first described it.
homologous transfusion Replacement of blood by transfusion of blood received from another person
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS; also known as a retrovirus
humoral immunity Immunity that responds to antigens, such as bacteria and foreign agents, by producing antibodies. Also called antibody-mediated immunity.
hyperlipidemia Condition of having too high a level of lipids such as cholesterol in the bloodstream.
hypochromic anemia Anemia resulting from having insufficient hemoglobin in the erythrocytes.
immune response Ability of lymphocytes to respond to specific antigens.
immunity The body's ability to defend itself against pathogens.
immunization Providing protection against communicable diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against that disease. Children can now be immunized for diseases like hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, etc.
immunocompromised having an immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens. Also called immunodeficiency disorder
immunoglobulins antibodies secreted by B cells. All antibodies are immunoglobulins & assist in protecting the body from invasion of bacteria. The immunoglobulin IgA in colostrum, the first milk from the mother, helps protect newborns.
immunologist immunity specialist
immunology a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases and other disorders of the immune system. Physician is an immunologist
immunosuppressants blocks certain actions of the immune system. Required to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
immunotherapy giving a patient an injection of immunoglobulins or antibodies to treat a disease. The antibodies may be produced by another person or animal(ex-antivenom for snake bites). More recent developments include treatments to boost activity of the immune system
inflammation the tissues’ response to injury from pathogens or physical agents. Characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to the touch
inguinal Commonly referred to as the groin. There is a collection of lymph nodes in this region that drain each leg.
iron-deficiency anemia Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin
Karposi’s sarcoma (KS) form of skin cancer frequently seen in patients with AIDS. It consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs. Named for Moritz Kaposi, an Austrian dermatologist
lacteals Lymphatic vessels in the intestines that serve to absorb fats from the diet.
leukemia Cancer of white blood cell-forming red bone marrow resulting in a large number of abnormal, immature white blood cells.
leukocyte white cell
leukocytosis too many white cells
leukopenia too few white (cells)
leukopoiesis white (cell) producing
lingual tonsil Tonsil located on the very posterior section of the tongue as it joins with the pharynx.
lymph Clear, transparent, colorless fluid found in the lymphatic vessels and the cisterna chyli.
lymphadenectomy removal of lymph node. This is usually done to test for malignancy
lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes. Referred to a swollen glands
lymphadenopathy lymph gland disease
lymphangiogram record of lymph vessels
lymphangiography X-ray taken of the lymph vessels after the injection of dye into the foot. The lymph flow through the chest is traced.
lymphangioma lymph vessel tumor
lymphatic pertaining to lymph
lymphatic capillaries The smallest lymph vessels; they collect excessive tissue fluid.
lymphatic ducts The two largest vessels in the lymphatic system, the lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.
lymphatic vessels Extensive network of vessels throughout the entire body; conduct lymph from the tissue toward the thoracic cavity.
lymphedema edema appearing in the extremities due to the obstruction of the lymph flow through the lymphatic vessels
lymph glands Another name for lymph nodes
lympth nodes Small organs in the lymphatic system that filter bacteria and other foreign organisms from the body fluids.
lymphoma lymph tumor
macrophage Phagocytic cells that are found in large quantities in the lymph nodes. They engulf foreign particles.
mediastinal There is a collection of lymph nodes located in the mediastinum (central chest area) that drain the chest.
metastasize When cancerous cells migrate away from a tumor site. They commonly move through the lymphatic, system and become trapped in lymph nodes.
monocyte An agranulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis.
mononucleosisacute infectious disease with a large number of abnormal lymphocytes. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Monospot test for infectious mononucleosis
natural immunity Immunity that is not specific to a particular disease and does not require prior exposure to the pathogen. Also called innate immunity.
natural killer cells T-cells that can kill by entrapping foreign cells, tumor cells, and bacteria. Also called T8 cells.
neutrophil A granulocyte white blood cell that is important for phagocytosis. It is also the most numerous of the leukocytes.
non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cancer of the lymphatic tissues other than Hodgkin’s lymphoma
nosocomial infection An infection acquired as a result of hospital exposure.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal agency that issued mandatory guidelines to ensure that all employees at risk of exposure to body fluids are provided with personal protective equipment.
opportunistic infections infectious diseases associated with patients who have compromised immune systems and therefore a lowered resistance to infections and parasites. May be the result of HIV infection
packed cells Transfusion of only the formed elements and without plasma
pancytopenia too few of all cells
passive acquired immunity Immunity that results when a person receives protective substances produced by another human or animal. This may take the form of maternal antibodies crossing the placenta to a baby or an antitoxin injection.
pathogenic disease producing
pathogens Disease-bearing organisms.
pathology study of disease
pernicious anemia Anemia associated with insufficient absorbtion of vitamin B12 by the digestive system. B12 is necessary for erythrocyte production.
phagocyte Neutrophil component of the blood; has the ability to ingest and destroy bacteria.
phagocytosis The process of engulfing or ingesting material. Several types of white blood cells function by engulfing bacteria.
pharyngeal tonsils Another term for adenoids. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
pharynx Medical term for the throat. The passageway that conducts air from the nasal cavity to the trachea, and also carries food & drink from the mouth to the esophagus. The pharynx is divided into 3 sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
phlebotomy Incision into a vein in order to remove blood for a diagnostic test. Venipuncture.
plasma The liquid portion of blood containing 90% water.
plasmapheresis Method of removing plasma from the body without depleting the formed elements. Whole blood is removed and the cells and plasma are separated. The cells are returned to the patient along with a donor plasma transfusion.
plasma proteins Proteins that are found in plasma. Includes serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin.
platelet count Blood test to determine the number of platelets in a volume of blood.
platelets Cells responsible for the coagulation of blood. These are also called thrombocytes and contain no hemoglobin.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia pneumonia common in patients with AIDS that is caused by infection with an opportunistic parasite
polycythemia veraProduction of too many red blood cells by the bone marrow. Blood becomes too thick to easily flow through vessels.
potassium An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones and muscles.
protease inhibitor drugs inhibits protease, an enzyme viruses need to reproduce
prothrombin Protein element within the blood that interacts with calcium salts to form thrombin.
prothrombin time A measure of the body’s coagulation abilities by measuring how long it takes for a clot to form after prothrombin has been activated
protozoans Single-celled organisms that can infect the body
red blood cell count (RBC) Blood test to determine number of erythrocytes in a volume of blood.
red blood cell morphology Examination of a specimen of blood for abnormalities in the shape. Used to detect diseases like sickle cell anemia.
red blood cells erythrocytes. Cells that contain hemoglobin, and iron-containing pigment that binds oxygen in order to transport it to the cells of the body.
reinfection An infection that occurs when a person becomes infected again with the same pathogen that originally brought him or her to the hospital.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs inhibits reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed by viruses to reproduce
Rh factor An antigen marker found on erythrocytes of persons with Rh + blood.
Rh-negative A person with Rh- blood type. The person's RBCs do not have the Rh marker and will make antibodies against Rh + blood.
Rh-positive A person with RH + blood type. The person's RBCs have the Rh marker.
right lymphatic duct One of two large lymphatic ducts. It drains right arm and the right side of the neck and chest; empties lymph into the right subclavian vein.
sanguinous pertaining to blood
sarcoidosis disease of unknown cause that forms fibrous lesions commonly appearing in the lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen, eyes, and small bones of the hands and feet
scratch test form of allergy testing in which the body is exposed to an allergen through a light scratch in the skin
self-inoculation Infection that occurs when a person becomes infected in a different part of the body by a pathogen from another part of his /her own body, such as intestinal bacteria spreading to the urethra.
septicemia Having bacteria or other toxins in the bloodstream. Blood poisoning
sequential multiple analyzer computer (SMAC) Machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically.
serum Clear, sticky fluid that remains after the blood has clotted.
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) disease seen in children born with a nonfunctioning immune system. Often these children are forced to live in sealed sterile rooms
sickle cell anemia Genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved or “sickle” shape. These cells are fragile and easily damaged, leading to hemolytic anemia.
sodium An inorganic substance found in plasma.
spleen Organ in the lymphatic system that filters microorganisms and old red blood cells from the blood.
splenectomy removal of spleen
splenomegaly enlarged spleen
T cells A lymphocyte active in cellular immunity.
thalassemia A genetic disorder in which the body is unable to make functioning hemoglobin, resulting in anemia
thoracic duct The largest lymph vessel. It drains the entire body except for the right arm, chest wall, and both lungs. It empties lymph into the left subclavian vein.
thrombin A clotting enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
thrombocyte clotting cell
thrombocytosis too many clotting cells
thrombolytic Able to dissolve existing clots
thrombopenia too few clotting (cells)
thromboplastin Substance released by platelets; reacts with prothrombin to form thrombin.
thrombopoiesis clotting (cell) producing
thymectomy removal of thymus
thymoma thymus tumor
thymosin Hormone secreted by thymus gland. It causes lymphocytes to change into T-lymphocytes.
thymus gland An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
T lymphocytes A type of lymphocyte involved with producing cells that physically attack and destroy pathogens.
tonsillar pertaining to tonsils
tonsillectomy removal of tonsils
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tonsils The collections of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose or mouth. The tonsils are the pharyngeal tonsils, the palatine tonsils, and the lingual tonsils.
toxins Substances poisonous to the body. Many are filtered out of the blood by the kidney.
Type A One of the ABO blood types. A person with type A markers on his or her RBCs. Type A blood will make anti-B antibodies.
type AB One of the ABO blood types. A person with both type A and type B markers on his or her RBCs. Since it has both markers, it will not make antibodies against either A or B blood.
type and crossmatch Lab test performed before a person receives a blood transfusion; double checks the blood type of both the donor's and recipient's blood.
Type B One of the ABO blood types. A person with type B markers on his or her RBCs. Type B blood will make anti-A antibodies.
Type O One of the ABO blood types. A person with no markers on his or her RBCs. Type O blood will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Therefore, it is considered the universal donor.
universal donor Type O blood is considered the universal donor. Since it has no markers on the RBC surface, it will not trigger a reaction with anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
universal recipient A person with type AB blood has no antibodies against the other blood types and therefore, in an emergency, can receive any type of blood.
urea A waste product of protein metabolism. It diffuses through the tissues in lymph and is returned to the circulatory system for transport to the kidneys.
urticaria severe itching associated with hive, usually linked to food allergy, stress, or drug reactions
vaccination exposure to a weakened pathogen that stimulates the immune system response and antibody production in order to confer protection against the full-blown disease. Also called immunization
valve A flap-like structure found within the tubular organs such as lymph vessels, veins, and the heart. They function to prevent the backflow of fluid.
viruses A group of infectious particles that cause disease.
Western blot test used as a backup to the ELISA blood test to detect the presence of the antibody to HIV (AIDS virus) in the blood
white blood cell count (WBC) Blood test to measure the number of leukocytes in a volume of blood. An increase may indicate the presence of an infection or disease such as leukemia. A decrease can be caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy
white blood cell differential (diff) Blood test to determine the number of each variety of leukocytes.
white blood cells Blood cell that provides protection against the invasion of bacteria and other foreign material.
whole blood The mixture of both plasma and formed elements
acapnia lack of carbon dioxide
adenoids Another term for pharyngeal tonsils. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, & hypoxemia. May follow trauma, pneumonia, or septic infections. Also called acute respiratory distress syndrome.
aerosol therapy medication suspended in a mist that is intended to be inhaled. Delivered by a nebulizer, which delivers the mist for a period of time while the patient breathes, or a metered dose inhaler (MDI), which delivers a single puff of mist.
alveoli The tiny air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. The alveoli are surrounded by a capillary network. Gas exchange takes place as oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar and capillary walls.
anosmia lack of (sense of) smell
anoxia condition of no oxygen
anthracosis Type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of coal dust in the lung. Also called black lung or miner’s lung
antibiotic kills bacteria causing respiratory infections
antihistamine blocks the effects of histamine that has been released by the body during an allergy attack
antitussive relieves the urge to cough
apex Directional term meaning tip or summit.
aphonia no voice
apnea not breathing
arterial blood gases Testing for the gases present in the blood. Generally used to assist in determining the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
asbestosis The type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of asbestos fibers in the lungs. May lead to the development of lung cancer.
asphyxia Lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness and death if not corrected immediately. Some of the common causes are drowning, foreign body in the respiratory tract, poisoning, and electric shock.
aspiration Withdrawing fluid from a body cavity using suction(using a needle & syringe to withdraw fluid from the pleural cavity or a vacuum pump to remove phlegm from airways). Also refers to inhaling food/liquid/an object into airways, which may cause pneumonia.
asthma Disease caused by various conditions, like allergens, & resulting in constriction of the bronchial airways, dyspnea, coughing, & wheezing. Can cause violent spasms of bronchi but is generally not a life-threatening condition.
atelectasis Condition where alveoli in a portion of the lung collapse, preventing exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide.Caused by a variety of conditions, including pressure on the lung from a tumor or other object. Also can mean failure of a newborn’s lungs to expand.
bradypnea slow breathing
bronchial pertaining to the bronchus
bronchial tube An organ of the respiratory system that carries air into each lung.
bronchiectasis Abnormal enlargement of bronchi; may be the result of a lung infection. This condition can be irreversible & result in the destruction of the bronchial walls. Major symptoms include coughing up a large amount of purulent sputum, rales, & hemoptysis.
bronchioles The narrowest air tubes in the lungs. Each bronchiole terminates in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
bronchitis inflammation of a bronchus
bronchodilator relaxes muscle spasms in bronchial tubes. Used to treat asthma
bronchogenic carcinoma Malignant tumor originating in the bronchi. Usually associated with a history of cigarette smoking.
bronchogenic produced by the bronchus
bronchogram record or xray of the bronchus
bronchography X-ray of the lung after a radiopaque substance has been inserted into the trachea or bronchial tube. Resulting x-ray is a called a bronchogram
bronchoplasty surgical repair of a bronchus
bronchoscope instrument to view inside the bronchus
bronchoscopy (bronch) visual examination of the inside of the bronchi; uses an instrument called a bronchoscope
bronchospasm involuntary muscle spasm of bronchus
bronchus The distal end of the trachea splits into a left & right main bronchi as it enters each lung. Each main bronchus is subdivided into smaller branches. The smallest bronchi are bronchioles. Each bronchiole ends in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
carbon dioxide A waste product of cellular energy production. It is removed from the cells by the blood and eliminated from the body by the lungs.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation emergency treatment provided by persons trained in CPR and given to patients when their respirations and heart stop. CPR provides oxygen to the brain, heart, and other vital organs until medical treatment can restore a normal heart and pulmonary function
chest x-ray taking a radiographic picture of the lungs and heart from the back and sides
Cheyne-Stokes respiration Abnormal breathing pattern in which there are long periods of apnea followed by a deeper, more rapid breathing.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Progressive, chronic & usually irreversible group of conditions, like emphysema, in which the lungs have a diminished capacity for inspiration (inhalation) & expiration (exhalation). The person may have dyspnea upon exertion & a cough.
cilia A term for eyelashes that protect the eye from foreign particles or for nasal hairs that help filter dust and bacteria out of inhaled air.
clubbing Abnormal widening & thickening of the ends of the fingers & toes associated with chronic oxygen deficiency. Seen in patients with chronic respiratory conditions or circulatory problems
corticosteroids reduces inflammation and swelling in the respiratory track
croup Acute respiratory condition found in infants & children that is characterized by a barking type of cough or stridor.
cyanosis refers to the bluish tint of skin that is receiving an insufficient amount of oxygen or circulation.
cystic fibrosis (CF) Hereditary condition causing the exocrine glands to malfunction. Patient produces a very thick mucus that causes severe congestion within the lungs & digestive system.
decongestant reduces stuffiness and congestion throughout the respiratory system
diaphragm The major muscle of inspiration. It separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity.
diaphragmatic pertaining to the diaphragm
diphtheria Bacterial upper respiratory infection characterized by the formation of a thick membranous film across the throat & a high mortality rate. Rare now due to the DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) vaccine.
dysphonia abnormal voice
dyspnea difficult, labored breathing
emphysema Pulmonary condition characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli, resulting in fewer overexpanded air sacs. Can occur from long-term heavy smoking. Air pollution worsens emphysema. Patient may only able to breathe while sitting or standing.
empyema pus within the pleural space usually associated with a bacterial infection. Also called pyothorax
endotracheal intubation placing a tube through the mouth, through the glottis, and into the trachea to create a patent airway.
endotracheal pertaining to inside the trachea
epiglottis A flap of cartilage that covers the larynx when a person swallows. This prevents food and drink from entering the larynx and trachea.
epistaxis nosebleed
eupnea normal breathing
eustachian tube Tube or canal that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and allows for a balance of pressure between the outer and middle ear. Infection can travel via the mucous membranes of the eustachian tube, resulting in middle ear infections.
exhalation To breathe air out of the lungs. Also called expiration.
expectorant improves the ability to cough up mucus from the respiratory tract
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal quiet respiration. Also called supplemental air.
external respiration The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place in the lungs.
Fuctional residual capacity (FRC) The air that remains in the lungs after a normal exhalation.
glottis The opening between the vocal cords. Air passes through the glottis as it moves through the larynx. Changing the tension of the vocal cords changes the size of the opening.
Heimlich maneuver technique for removing a foreign body from trachea or pharynx by exerting diaphragmatic pressure. Named for Harry Heimlich, a US thoracic surgeon.
hemoptysis To cough up blood or blood-stained sputum.
hemothorax blood in the chest
hilum Center of the concave side of the kidney which is an important landmark on the kidney. It is the site where the renal artery enters, the renal vein leaves, the ureter leaves, and nerves enter and leave the kidney.
histoplasmosis pulmonary infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, found in dust and in the droppings of pigeons and chickens.
hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide
hyperpnea excessive (deep) breathing
hyperventilation To breathe both too fast (tachypnea) and too deep (hyperpnea)
hypopnea insufficient (shallow) breathing
hypoventilation To breath both too slow (bradypnea) and too shallow (hypopnea)
hypoxemia insufficient oxygen in the blood
hypoxia insufficient oxygen condition
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) Lung condition most commonly found in premature infants caused by lack of surfactant needed to keep lungs inflated. Symptoms incl. tachypnea & respiratory grunting. Also called hyaline membrane disease(HMD)& respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn.
influenza Viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue. Commonly called the flu.
Inspiratory capacity (IC) The volume of air inhaled after a normal exhale.
inhalation to breathe air into the lungs.
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) The air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal respiration has taken place. Also called complemental air.
intercostal muscles Muscles between the ribs. When they contract they raise the ribs, which helps to enlarge the thoracic cavity.
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) method for assisting patients in breathing using a mask that is connected to a machine that produces an increased positive thoracic pressure
internal medicine Branch of medicine involving the diagnosis & treatment of diseases & conditions of internal organs such as the respiratory system. The physician is an internist.
internal respiration The process of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at the cellular level when oxygen leaves the bloodstream and is delivered to the tissues.
laryngeal pertaining to the voice box
laryngectomy removal of the voice box
laryngitis inflammation of the voice box
laryngoplasty surgical repair of the voice box
laryngoplegia paralysis of the voice box
laryngoscope instrument to view the voice box
laryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx with a lighted instrument called a laryngoscope
Legionnaire’s Disease Severe, often fatal bacterial infection characterized by pneumonia and liver and kidney damage. Named after people who came down with it at an American Legion convention in 1976.
lingual tonsils Tonsil located on the very posterior section of the tongue as it joins with the pharynx.
lobectomy removal of a (lung) lobe
lobe Subdivisions of an organ such as the lungs or brain.
lungs The major organs of respiration. The lungs consist of air passageways, the bronchi and bronchioles, and the air sacs, alveoli. Gas exchange takes place within the alveoli.
mediastinium The central region of the chest cavity. It contains the organs between the lungs, including the heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea.
mucolytic liquefies mucus so it easier to cough and clear it from the respiratory tract chest
Mycoplasma pneumonia A less severe but longer lasting form of pneumonia caused by the Mycoplasma pneumonia bacteria. Also called walking pneumonia.
nares nostrils
nasal cannula Two-pronged plastic device for delivering oxygen into the nose; one prong is inserted into each naris
nasal cavity Large cavity just behind the external nose that receives the outside air. It is covered with mucous membrane to cleanse the air.
nasal septum cartilage that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves.
nasopharyngitis nose and throat inflammation (i.e., common cold)
nasopharynx The superior section of the pharynx that receives air from the nose.
oropharynx The middle section of the pharynx that receives food and drink from the mouth.
orthopnea Term to describe a patient who needs to sit up straight in order to breathe comfortably.
otorhinolaryngology Branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the ear, nose, & throat. May also be referred to as otolaryngology. The physician is an otorhinolaryngologist.
oximeter instrument to measure oxygen
oximetry measuring the oxygen level in the blood using a device, an oximeter, placed on the patient’s fingertip or ear lobe
oxygen Gaseous element absorbed by the blood from the air sacs in the lungs. It is necessary for cells to make energy.
palate roof of the mouth.
palatine tonsils Tonsils located in the lateral wall of the pharynx close to the mouth.
pansinusitis inflammation of all the sinuses
paranasal sinus Air-filled cavities within the facial bones that open into the nasal cavity; act as an echo chamber during sound production.
parietal pleura The outer layer of the serous membrane sac lining the thoracic cavity.
patent open or unblocked, such as a patent airway
percussion use of the fingertips to tap on a surface to determine the condition beneath the surface. Determined in part by the feel of the surface as it is tapped & the sound generated.
pertussis Commonly called whooping cough, due to the whoop sound made when coughing. An infectious bacterial disease of the upper respiratory system that children receive immunization against as part of their DPT shots.
pharyngeal pertaining to the throat
pharyngeal tonsils Another term for adenoids. The tonsils are a collection of lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx to combat microorganisms entering the body through the nose.
pharyngitis throat inflammation; sore throat
pharynx throat
phlegm Thick mucus secreted by the membranes that line the respiratory tract. When phlegm is coughed up, it is called sputum.
pleura A protective double layer of serous membrane around the lungs. The parietal membrane is the outer layer and the visceral layer is the inner membrane. It secretes a thin, watery fluid to reduce friction associated with lung movement.
pleural effusion Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity preventing lungs from fully expanding. Physicians can detect the presence of fluid by tapping the chest (percussion) or listening with a stethoscope (auscultation)
pleural rub Grating sound made when the 2 layers of the pleura rub together during respiration.Caused when 1 of the surfaces becomes thicker because of inflammation or other disease conditions.Can be felt when placing fingers on chest or heard through a stethoscope.
pleurectomy removal of the pleura
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura characterized by sharp chest pain with each breath. Also called pleuritis.
pleurocentesis puncture of the pleura to withdraw fluid
pleurodynia pleural pain
pneumoconiosis condition that is the result of inhaling environmental particles that become toxic. Can be the result of inhaling coal dust (anthracosis) or asbestos (asbestosis).
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumonia with a nonproductive cough, very little fever, and dyspnea caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. An opportunistic infection often seen in those with weakened immune systems, such as AIDS patients.
pneumonia Inflammatory condition of the lung that can be caused by bacterial and viral infections, diseases, and chemicals. Results in the filling of the alveoli and the air spaces with fluid.
pneumothorax Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity, which can result in the collapse of a lung.
polysomnography monitoring a patient while sleeping to identify sleep apnea. Also called sleep apnea study
postural drainage drainage of secretions from the bronchi by placing the patient in a position that uses gravity to promote drainage. Used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
pulmonary angiography injecting dye into a blood vessel for the purpose of taking an x-ray of the arteries and veins of the lungs
pulmonary capillaries Network of capillaries in the lungs that tightly encase each alveolus; sight of gas exchange.
pulmonary edema Condition in which lung tissue retains an excessive amount of fluid, especially in the alveoli. Results in dyspnea.
pulmonary embolism Blood clot or air bubble in the pulmonary artery or one of its branches. Many cause an infarct in the lung tissue.
pulmonary fibrosis formation of fibrous scar tissue in the lungs leads to decreased ability to expand the lungs. May be caused by infections, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune disease, and toxin exposure.
pulmonary function test (PFT) a group of diagnostic tests that give information regarding air flow in and out of the lungs, lung volumes, and gas exchange between the lungs and bloodstream
pulmonologist lung specialist
pulmonology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis & treatment of diseases & disorders of the respiratory system. Physician is a pulmonologist.
pyothorax pus in the chest
rales Abnormal cracking sound made during inspiration. Usually indicates presence of fluid or mucus in the airways.
Residual volume (RV) The air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation.
respiratory membrane Formed by the tight association of the walls of alveoli and capillaries; gas exchange between lungs and blood occurs across this membrane.
respiratory therapist Allied health professional whose duties include conducting pulmonary function tests, monitoring oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood, and administering breathing treatments.
respiratory therapy Allied health specialty that assists patients w/respiratory & cardiopulmonary disorders. Can include conducting pulmonary functions tests, monitoring oxygen & carbon dioxide levels in the blood, administering breathing treatments, & ventilator management.
rhinitis inflammation of the nose
rhinomycosis abnormal condition of nose fungus
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhagia rapid flow (of blood) from the nose
rhinorrhea nose discharge (i.e., runny nose)
rhonchi Somewhat musical sound during expiration, often found in asthma or infection. Caused by spasms of the bronchial tubes. Also called wheezing.
serous fluid Watery secretion of serous membranes.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea; high fatality rate. First appeared in China in 2003.
shortness of breath (SOB) Term used to indicate a patient is having difficulty breathing; also called dyspnea.
silicosis A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the inhalation of silica (quartz) dust found in quarrying, glass works, sand blasting, and ceramics
sleep apnea Condition in which breathing stops repeatedly during sleep long enough to cause a drop in oxygen levels in the blood
spirometer instrument to measure lung capacity.
spirometry procedure to measure lung capacity using a spirometer
sputum Mucus or phlegm that is coughed up from the lining of the respiratory tract.
sputum culture and sensitivity testing sputum by placing it on a culture medium and observing and bacterial growth. The specimen is then tested to determine antibiotic effectiveness.
sputum cytology examining sputum for malignant cells.
stridor harsh, high-pitched, noisy breathing sound made when there’s an obstruction of the bronchus or larynx. Found in conditions such as croup.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant under one year of age. The child suddenly stops breathing for unknown reasons.
supplemental oxygen therapy providing a patient with additional concentration of oxygen to improve oxygen levels in the bloodstream. Oxygen may be provided by a mask or nasal cannula.
sweat test a test for cystic fibrosis. Patients with this disease have an abnormally large amount of salt in their sweat
tachypnea rapid breathing
thoracalgia chest pain
thoracentesis surgical puncture of the chest wall for the removal of fluids. Also called thoracocentesis
thoracic surgery Branch of medicine involving diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the respiratory system by surgical means. Physician is a thoracic surgeon.
thoracic pertaining to the chest
thoracostomy insertion of a tube into the chest for the purpose of draining off fluid or air. Also called a chest tube
thoracotomy incision into the chest
thyroid cartilage A piece of cartilage associated with the larynx. It is also commonly called the Adam's apple and is larger in males.
Tidal Volume (TV) Amount of air that enters the lungs in a single inhalation or amount of air that leaves the lungs in a single exhalation.
Total lung capacity (TLC) The volume of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
trachea Also called the windpipe. It conducts air from the larynx down to the main bronchi in the chest.
tracheostenosis narrowing of the trachea
tracheostomy a surgical procedure often performed in an emergency that creates an opening directly into the trachea to allow a patient to breathe easier; also called tracheotomy
tracheotomy incision into the trachea
tuberculin skin test (TB test) applying a tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) under the surface of the skin to determine if the patient has been exposed to tuberculosis. Also called a tine or mantoux test.
tuberculosis (TB) Infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Causes inflammation & calcification in the lungs. TB is on the increase & seen in many patients w/weakened immune systems. Multidrug resistant TB is a very dangerous form.
ventilation The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
ventilation perfusion scan nuclear medicine diagnostic test especially useful in identifying pulmonary emboli. Radioactive air is inhaled to determine if air is filling the entire lung. Radioactive intravenous injection shows whether blood is flowing to all parts of the lung.
ventilator a machine that provides artificial ventilation for a patient unable to breathe on his or her own. Also called a respirator
visceral pleura The inner layer of the serous membrane sac encasing the thoracic viscera.
Vital capacity (VC) Total volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation.
vital signs Respiration, pulse, temperature, skin color, blood pressure, and reaction of pupils. These are signs of the condition of body functions.
vocal cords The structures within the larynx that vibrate to produce sound and speech.
accessory organs organs that are part of the digestive system, but not part of the continuous tube from mouth to anus. The accessory organs are the liver, pancreas, gall bladder, & salivary glands.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) Enzyme normally present in the blood. Blood levels are increased in persons with liver disease.
alimentary canal The gastrointestinal or digestive system. The area between the mouth & anus.It stores & digests food, absorbs nutrients, & eliminates waste. Major organs are: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus.
amylase Digestive enzyme found in saliva that begins the digestion of carbohydrates.
anal fistula Abnormal tube like passage from the surface around the anal opening directly into the rectum.
anal pertaining to the anus
anal sphincter Ring of muscle that controls anal opening.
anastomosis To surgically create a connection between two organs or vessels. For example, joining together two cut ends of the intestines after a section is removed.
anorexia A general term meaning absence of appetite. Also refers to anorexia nervosa, a personality disorder involving refusal to eat.
anorexiant Treats obesity by suppressing appetite.
antacid Used to neutralize stomach acids.
antidiarrheal Used to control diarrhea.
antiemetic Treats nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness.
antrum The tapered distal end of the stomach.
anus The terminal opening of the digestive tube.
aphagia unable to swallow/eat
aphthous ulcers painful ulcers in the mouth of unknown cause. Commonly called canker sores.
appendectomy removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
ascending colon The section of the colon following the cecum. It ascends the right side of the abdomen.
ascites Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
aspartate transaminase (AST) normally present in the blood. Blood levels are increased in persons with liver disease.
bariatric surgery A group of surgical procedures such as stomach stapling and restrictive banding to reduce the size of the stomach. A treatment for morbid (extreme) obesity.
bicuspids Premolar permanent teeth having two cusps or projections that assist in grinding food. Humans have eight bicuspids.
bile Sustance produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is added to the chyme in the duodenum and functions to emulsify fats so they can be digested and absorbed. Cholesterol is essential to bile production.
Bite wing x-ray X-ray taken with a part of the film holder held between the teeth and parallel to the teeth.
body The main portion of the stomach.
bolus Chewed up morsel of food ready to be swallowed.
bowel incontinence Inability to control defecation.
bradypepsia slow digestion
bridge Dental appliance attached to adjacent teeth for support to replace missing teeth.
buccal pertaining to the cheeks
buccolabial pertaining to the cheeks and lips
buffers Chemicals that neutralize acid; particularly stomach acid.
cachexia Loss of weight and generalized wasting that occurs during chronic disease.
canines Also called the cuspid teeth or eyeteeth. Permanent teeth located between the incisors and the biscuspids that assist in biting and cutting food. Human have four canine teeth.
cardiac sphincter Also called the lower esophageal sphincter. Prevents food and gastric juices from backing up into the esophagus.
cecum First portion of the colon. It is a blind pouch off the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix grows out of the end of the cecum.
cementum Anchors the root of a tooth into the socket of the jaw.
cheeks Form the lateral walls of the oral cavity.
cholecystalgia gallbladder pain
cholecystectomy removal of the gallbladder
cholecystic pertaining to the gallbladder
cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder; most commonly caused by gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct that block the flow of bile.
cholecystogram record of the gallbladder
choledocholithotripsy Crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis Presence of gallstones; may or may not cause symptoms such as cholecystalgia
chyme Semisoft mixture of food and digestive fluids that pass from the stomach into the small intestines.
cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver associated with failure of the liver to function properly.
cleft lip Congenital anomaly in which the upper lip and jaw bone fail to fuse in the midline leaving an open gap. Often seen along with a cleft palate. Corrected with surgery.
cleft palate Congenital anomaly in which the roof of the mouth has a split or fissure. Corrected with surgery.
colectomy removal of the colon
colon Also called the large intestines. Reabsorbs most of the fluid in the digested food. The material that remains after water reabsorption is the feces. Sections of the colon are the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, & sigmoid colon.
colonic pertaining to the colon
colonoscope instrument to view colon
colonoscopy Flexible fiberscope called a colonoscope is passed through the anus, rectum, and colon; used to examine the upper portion of the colon. Polyps and small growths can be removed during this procedure.
colorectal carcinoma Cancerous tumor along the length of the colon and rectum.
colorectal pertaining to the colon and rectum
colostomy Surgical creation of an opening of some portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside surface. Fecal material (stool) drains into a bag worn on the abdomen.
common bile duct A duct that carries bile from the gallbladder to the duodenum.
constipation Experiencing difficulty in defecation or infrequent defecation.
Crohn’s disease Form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting primarily the ileum and/or colon. Also called regional ileitis. This autoimmune condition affects all the layers of the bowel wall and results in scarring and thickening of the gut wall. crown
cuspids Permanent teeth located between the incisors and the bicuspids that assist in biting and cutting food. Humans have four cuspids. Also called canine teeth or eyeteeth.
cystic duct Duct leading from the gallbladder to the common bile duct; carries bile.
deciduous teeth The 20 teeth that begin to erupt around the age of 6 months. Eventually pushed out by the permanent teeth.
defecation Evacuation of feces from the rectum.
dental Pertaining to teeth
dental caries Gradual decay and disintegration of teeth caused by bacteria; may lead to abscessed teeth. Commonly called a tooth cavity.
dentalgia tooth pain
dentin The main bulk of the tooth. It is covered by enamel.
dentistry Branch of healthcare involved with prevention, diagnosis, & treatment of conditions involving the teeth, jaw, & mouth. Practiced by a dentist or oral surgeon.
denture Partial or complete set of artificial teeth that are set in plastic materials. Acts as a substitute for the natural teeth & related structures.
descending colon The section of the colon that descends the left side of the abdomen.
diarrhea Passing of frequent, watery bowel movements. Usually accompanies gastrointestinal (GI) disorders.
diverticulectomy Surgical removal of a diverticulum.
diverticulitis Inflammation of the diverticulum (an outpouching off the gut), especially in the colon. Inflammation often results when food becomes trapped within the pouch.
diverticulosis Condition of having diverticula (outpouches off the gut). May lead to diverticulitis if one becomes inflamed.
duodenal pertaining to the duodenum
duodenum The first section of small intestines. Digestion is completed in the duodenum after the chyme mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas and gallbladder.
dysentery Disease characterized by diarrhea, often with mucus and blood, severe abdominal pain, fever, and dehydration. Caused by ingesting food or water contaminated by chemicals, bacteria, protozoans, or parasites.
dysorexia abnormal appetite
dyspepsia difficult digestion
dysphagia difficulty swallowing/eating
emesis Vomiting
emetic Induces vomiting.
emulsification To make fats and lipids more soluble in water.
enamel The hardest substance in the body. Covers the outer surface of teeth.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Procedure using an endoscope to visually examine the hepatic duct, common duct, & pancreatic duct. The endoscope is inserted through the anus & worked backwards to the area where pancreatic & common bile ducts empty into the duodenum.
enteric pertaining to the small intestine
enteritis small intestine inflammation
epiglottis A flap of cartilage that covers the larynx when a person swallows. This prevents food and drink from entering the larynx and trachea.
esophageal pertaining to the esophagus.
esophageal varices Enlarged and swollen varicose veins in the lower end of the esophagus. If these rupture, serious hemorrhage results; often related to liver disease.
esophagectasis dilated esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy Use of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope to visually examine the esophagus, stomach, and the beginning of the duodenum.
esophagus The tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach.
exploratory laparotomy Abdominal operation for the purpose of examining the abdominal organs and tissues for signs of disease or other abnormalities.
extraction Removing or “pulling” teeth.
fecal occult blood test (FOBT) Laboratory test on the feces to determine if microscopic amounts of blood are present. Also called hemoccult or stool guaiac.
feces Food that cannot be digested becomes a waste product and is expelled or defecated as feces.
fistulectomy Removal of a fistula
fundus The domed upper portion of an organ such as the stomach or uterus.
gallbladder This small organ is located just under the liver. It functions to store the bile produced by the liver. The gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
gastralgia stomach pain
gastrectomy removal of the stomach
gastric carcinoma Cancerous tumor in the stomach
gastric stapling Procedure that closes off a large section of the stomach with rows of staples. Results in a much smaller stomach to assist very obese patients to lose weight.
gastric pertaining to the stomach
gastritis stomach inflammation
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
gastroenterologist specialist in the stomach and small intestine
gastroenterology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis & treatment of diseases & disorders of the digestive system. Physician is a gastroenterologist.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Acid from the stomach flows backward up into the esophagus causing inflammation and pain.
gastrointestional system System that digests food and absorbs nutrients. Organs include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and anus. Also called the digestive system.
gastrointestinal tract the continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus.
gastromalacia softening of the stomach
gastroscope instrument to view inside the stomach
gastroscopy Procedure in which a flexible gastroscope is passed through the mouth and down the esophagus in order to visualize inside the stomach. Used to diagnose peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma.
gastrostomy create an opening in the stomach
gavage Using a nasogastric (NG) tube to place liquid nourishment directly into the stomach.
gingiva gums, or tissue around the teeth
gingival pertaining to the gums
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossal pertaining to the tongue
gums tissue around the teeth
gut alimentary canal.
H2-receptor antagonist Used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. When stimulated, H2-receptors increase the production of stomach acid. Using an antagonist to block these receptors results in a low acid level in the stomach.
hematemesis vomiting blood
hematochezia Passing bright red blood in the stools.
hemorrhoidectomy Surgical removal of hemorrhoids from the anorectal area.
hemorrhoids Varicose veins in the rectum.
hepatic pertaining to the liver
hepatic duct The duct that leads from the liver to the common bile duct; transports bile.
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma liver tumor
hernioplasty Surgical repair of a hernia. Also called herniorrhaphy.
herpes labialis Infection of the lip by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Also called fever blister or cold sore.
hiatal hernia Protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm (also called a diaphragmatocele) and extending into the thoracic cavity; gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common symptom.
hydrochloric acid Acid secreted by the stomach lining. Aids in digestion.
hyperemesis excessive vomiting
hypoglossal pertaining to under the tongue
ileal pertaining to the ileum
ileocecal valve Sphincter between the ileum and the cecum.
ileostomy creating an opening in the ileum
ileum The third portion of the small intestines. Joins the colon at the cecum. The ileum and cecum are separated by the ileocecal valve.
ileus Severe abdominal pain, inability to pass stool, vomiting, and abdominal distension as a result of an intestinal blockage. May require surgery to reverse the blockage.
implant Prosthetic device placed in the jaw to which a tooth or denture may be anchored.
incisors Biting teeth in the very front of the mouth that function to cut food into smaller pieces. Humans have eight incisors.
inguinal hernia Hernia/protrusion of a loop of small intestines into the inguinal region through a weak spot in the abdominal muscle wall that develops into a hole. May become strangulated if muscle tightens down around the loop of intestines & cuts off blood flow.
internal medicine branch of medicine involving the diagnosis & treatment of diseases & conditions of internal organs such as the digestive system. The physician is an internist.
intravenous cholecystography Dye is administered intravenously to the patient, which allows for the x-ray visualization of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
intussusception Result of the intestine slipping or telescoping into another section of intestine just below it. More common in children.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Disturbance in the functions of the intestine from unknown causes. Symptoms generally include abdominal discomfort and an alteration in bowel activity. Also called spastic colon or functional bowel syndrome.
jaundice Yellow cast of the skin, mucous membranes, & whites of the eyes caused by the deposit of bile pigment from too much bilirubin,a waste product found in the blood when worn-out blood cells are broken down. May be a symptom of gallstones or liver carcinoma.
jejunal pertaining to the jejunum
jejunum The middle portion of the small intestines. Site of nutrient absorption.
laparoscope instrument to view inside the abdomen
laparoscopic cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder through a very small abdominal incision with the assistance of a laparoscope.
laparoscopy Laparoscope is passed into the abdominal wall through a small incision. The abdominal cavity is then visually examined for tumors and other conditions with this lighted instrument. Also called peritoneoscopy.
laparotomy incision into the abdomen
laryngopharynx The inferior section of the pharynx. It lies at the same level in the neck as the larynx. Air has already entered the larynx, therefore the laryngopharynx carries food and drink to the esophagus.
lavage Using a nasogastric (NG) tube to wash out the stomach. For example, after ingestion of dangerous substances.
laxative Treats constipation by stimulating a bowel movement.
lips The anterior opening of the oral cavity
liver A large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It serves many functions in the body. Its digestive system role includes producing bile, processing the absorbed nutrients, and detoxifying harmful substances.
liver transplant Transplant of a liver from a donor.
lower esophageal sphincter Also called the cardiac sphincter. Prevents food and gastric juices from backing up into the esophagus.
lower gastrointestinal series X-ray image of the colon and rectum is taken after the administration of barium (a radiopaque dye) by enema. Also called a barium enema.
melena Passage of dark tarry stools. Color is the result of digestive enzymes working on blood in the GI tract.
molars Large somewhat flat-topped back teeth. Function to grind food. Humans have up to 12 molars.
nasogastric intubation (NG tube) Flexible catheter is inserted into the nose and down the esophagus to the stomach. May be used for feeding or to suction out stomach fluids.
nasogastric pertaining to the nose and stomach
nausea The urge to vomit.
obesity Body weight that is above a healthy level. A person whose weight interferes with normal activity & bodily function has morbid obesity.
oral pertaining to the mouth
oral cavity the mouth
oropharynx The middle section of the pharynx that receives food and drink from the mouth.
orthodontic pertaining to straight teeth
orthodontics Branch of dentistry concerned with correction of problems with tooth alignment. A specialist is an orthodontist.
Ova and parasites (O&P) Laboratory examination of feces with a microscope for the presence of parasites or their eggs.
palate The roof of the mouth. The anterior portion is hard or bony, and the posterior portion is soft or flexible.
palatoplasty surgical repair of the palate
pancreas Organ in the digestive system that produces digestive enzymes. Also a gland in the endocrine system that produces two hormones, insulin and glucagon.
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
pancreatic duct Duct carrying pancreatic juices from the pancreas to the duodenum.
pancreatic enzymes Digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas and added to the chyme in the duodenum.
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
paracentesis Insertion of a needle into the abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid. Tests to diagnose diseases may be conducted on the fluid.
paratid glands A pair of salivary glands located in front of the ears.
peptic ulcer disease Ulcer in lower portion of esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum;thought to be caused by acid of gastric juices.Damage to lining of stomach may be caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).A perforated ulcer (all the way through stomach wall) needs surgery.
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) Procedure in which contrast medium is injected directly into the liver to visualize the bile ducts. Used to detect obstructions.
periodontal disease Disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bones; most common cause of tooth loss.
peridontal ligaments Small ligaments that anchor the root of a tooth in the socket of the jaw.
periodontic pertaining to around the teeth
periodontics Branch of dentistry concerned with treating conditions involving the gums & tissues surrounding the teeth. A specialist is a periodontist.
peristalis The wave-like muscular movements in the wall of the digestive system tube-esophagus, stomach, small intestines, & colon-that functions to move food along the tube.
permanent teeth The 32 permanent teeth begin to erupt at about the age of 6. Generally complete by the age of 16.
pharyngeal pertaining to the throat
pharyngoplasty surgical repair of the throat
pharyngoplegia paralysis of the throat
pharynx throat
polyp Small tumor with a pedicle or stem attachment. Commonly found on mucous membranes such as those lining the colon or nasal cavity. Colon polyps may be precancerous.
polyphagia many (excessive) eating
polyposis Small tumors that contain a pedicle or stemlike attachment in the mucous membranes of the large intestine (colon); may be precancerous.
postprandial after a meal
premolar Another term for the bicuspid teeth.
proctologist specialist in the rectum and anus
proctology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis & treatment of diseases & disorders of the anus and rectum. Physician is a proctologist.
proctopexy surgical fixation of the rectum and anus
proctoptosis dropping rectum and anus
Proton pump inhibitors Used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Blocks the stomach’s ability to secrete acid.
pulp cavity The hollow interior of a tooth; contains soft tissue made up of blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels.
pyloric pertaining to the pylorus
pyloric sphincter Sphincter at the distal end of the stomach. Controls the passage of food into the duodenum.
pyrosis Pain and burning sensation usually caused by stomach acid splashing up into the esophagus. Commonly called heartburn.
rectal pertaining to the rectum
rectum An area at the end of the digestive tube for storage of feces that leads to the anus.
regurgitation Return of fluids and solids from the stomach into the mouth.
root The portion of a tooth below the gum line.
root canal Dental treatment involving the pulp cavity of the root of the tooth. Procedure is used to save a tooth that is badly infected or abscessed.
rugae The prominent folds in the mucosa of the stomach. They smooth out and almost disappear allowing the stomach to expand when it is full of food.
saliva Watery fluid secreted into the mouth from the salivary glands; contains digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates and lubricants that make it easier to swallow food.
salivary glands Exocrine glands with ducts that open into the mouth. They produce saliva, which makes the bolus of food easier to swallow and begins the digestive process. There are three pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual.
serum bilirubin Blood test to determine the amount of the waste product bilirubin in the bloodstream. Elevated levels indicate liver disease.
sialadenitis inflammation of the salivary gland
sigmoidal pertaining to the sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon The final section of colon. It follows an S-shaped path and terminates in the rectum.
sigmoidoscope instrument to view inside the sigmoid colon
sigmoidoscopy Procedure using a flexible sigmoidoscope to visually examine the sigmoid colon. Commonly done to diagnose cancer and polyps.
small intestine The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and colon, and the major site of nutrient absorption. There are three sections: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
sphincter A ring of muscle around a tubular organ. It can contract to control the opening of the tube.
stomach J-shaped muscular organ that acts as a sac to collect, churn, digest, & store food. It's composed of 3 parts: fundus, body, & antrum. Food mixes w/other gastric juices & hydrochloric acid to form a mixture called chyme, which passes into the duodenum.
stool culture Laboratory test of feces to determine if any pathogenic bacteria are present.
sublingual pertaining to under the tongue
sublingual glands A pair of salivary glands in the floor of the mouth.
submandibular glands A pair of salivary glands in the floor of the mouth.
taste buds Found on the surface of the tongue; designed to detect bitter, sweet, sour, and salty flavors in our food.
teeth Structures in mouth that mechanically break up food into smaller pieces during chewing.
tongue A muscular organ in the floor of the mouth. Works to move food around inside the mouth and is also necessary for speech.
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Providing 100% of a patient’s nutrition intravenously. Used when a patient is unable to eat.
transverse colon The section of colon that crosses the upper abdomen from the right side of the body to the left.
ulcerative colitis Chronis inflammatory condition that produces numerous ulcers to form on the mucous membrane lining of the colon; the cause is unknown. Also, known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) Administering of a barium contrast material orally and then taking an x-ray to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Also called a barium swallow.
uvula Structure that hangs down from the posterior edge of the soft palate and helps in the production of speech and is the location of the gag reflex.
vermiform appendix A small outgrowth at the end of the cecum. Its function or purpose is unknown.
volvulus Condition in which the bowel twists upon itself and causes an obstruction. Painful and requires immediate surgery.
Created by: AltheaMathews