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LOM Ch 7 Urinary

LOM Ch 7 Urinary System

abscess Collection of pus
acetone Ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells.
albuminuria Protein in the urine.
antidiuretic hormone A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland – normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, prevents excess loss of water; also called vasopressin (water is reabsorbed from the renal tubules back into the bloodstream).
anuria Suppression of urine formation by the kidney; no urine is produced.
arteriole Small artery.
azotemia Excess of nitrogen (nitrogenous waste products) in the blood; uremia.
bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine.
Bowman capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus (ball of capillaries) in the outer section (cortex) of the kidney; also known as the glomerular capsule
caliceal Pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney).
caliectasis Dilation or widening of a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney). This occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis.
calyx; calyces (plural) Cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney).
catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids.
cortex Outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney.
cortical Pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ).
creatinine Nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine.
creatinine clearance test Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
cystectomy Excision (removal) of the urinary bladder.
cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
cystoscopy Visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder.
cystostomy New opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
diabetes insipidus Abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland. Patients experience polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst).
diabetes mellitus Abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas. This leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine).
diuresis Condition of complete (excessive) urination; increased excretion of urine by the kidneys. A diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee or water.
dysuria Difficult, painful urination.
edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces.
electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-).
enuresis Bedwetting (literally, “in urine.”)
erythropoietin A hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
essential hypertension High blood pressure due to no apparent cause.
filtration Process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material.
glomerular Pertaining to the capsule surrounding each glomerulus
glomerular capsule Also known as Bowman capsule; surrounding each glomerulus (tiny ball of capillaries). Collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of glomeruli (tiny ball of capillaries - microscopic blood vessels - in the cortex of the kidney)
glomerulus, glomeruli (plural) Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney. As blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream.
glycosuria Sugar in the urine.
hematuria Blood in the urine.
hemodialysis Removal of waste materials (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning. Blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through
hilum Depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung. It is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ.
hydronephrosis Abnormal condition of excess fluid (urine - literally “water”) in the kidney.
hyperkalemia High levels of potassium (K+) in the blood.
hyponatremia Low levels of sodium in the blood.
interstitial nephritis Inflammation of the tissue in the kidney that lies between (interstitium) the nephrons (functional units).
intravesical Pertaining to within the bladder
ketonuria Presence of ketones (acids and acetone) in the urine. Common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur anytime the body begins to break down fatty tissue to provide energy as in starvation.
ketosis Abnormal condition – accumulation of large quantities of ketone bodies (acetones) in the blood; ketoacidosis.
kidney One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
lithotripsy Process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone within the urinary tract (kidney or ureter).
meatal stenosis Narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body.
meatotomy Incision of a meatus in order to enlarge it.
meatus An opening or passageway. In the urinary system this is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body. (in the ear, the auditory meatus is the opening of the ear to the outside of the body).
medulla Inner region of an organ.
medullary Pertaining to the medulla or an organ.
micturition Process of expelling urine, also called voiding or urination
nephrolithiasis Abnormal condition of kidney stones.
nephrolithotomy Incision of the kidney to remove a stone.
nephron Functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule.
nephropathy Disease or abnormality of the kidney.
nephroptosis Prolapse (downward displacement) of a kidney; floating or wandering kidney.
nephrostomy New opening of the kidney to the outside of the body.
nephrotic syndrome Group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine. Symptoms include edema (swelling of tissues), hypoalbuminemia (loss of protein from the blood), heavy proteinuria, and infection. This condition is also known as nephrosis.
nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine: examples are urea, creatinine and uric acid.
nocturia frequent urination at night
oliguria Scanty urination.
paranephric Pertaining to beside or near a kidney.
parenchyma In relation to an organ this term relates to the essential and distinctive tissue of the organ.
peritoneal dialysis Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter.
perivesical Pertaining to surrounding the urinary bladder
phenylketonuria Excess of phenylketones in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test (blood test) at birth.
polycystic kidney disease Kidneys are filled with cysts that prevent normal kidney function.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
polyuria Excessive urination
potassium Chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes. When dissolved in water, it is an electrolyte whose balance is regulated by the kidney.
pyelogram x-ray record of the kidney (renal pelvis) after injection of contrast material.
pyelolithotomy Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis of the kidney.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney; caused by bacterial infection.
pyuria Pus in the urine; sign of urinary tract infection (UTI).
reabsorption Process in the kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal angiography X-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material.
renal angioplasty Surgical repair of blood vessels in the kidney. Narrowed areas of renal arteries are dilated using an inflatable balloon attached to a catheter.
renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
renal calculi Kidney stones.
renal cell carcinoma Malignant tumor of the kidney in an adult.
renal colic Severe pain resulting from stones (calculi) in a ureter or in kidney (renal pelvis).
renal failure Failure of the kidneys to produce and excrete urine.
renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
renal ischemia Condition in which blood is held back from the kidney, often by blockage of renal arteries and arterioles.
renal pelvis Central collecting chamber of the kidney.
renal transplantation Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.
renal tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and back toward the heart.
renin A substance (enzyme) synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney to raise blood pressure. It causes narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels.
retrograde pyelogram X-ray record of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection of contrast material through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
secondary hypertension High blood pressure caused by kidney disease or by other disorders.
sodium Chemical element necessary for cellular functioning. As an electrolyte, its blood and urine levels are regulated by the kidney.
stricture Narrowing of a tubular structure in the body.
trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits.
trigonitis Inflammation of the triangular area in the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits).
urea Major nitrogenous waste material in urine.
uremia Excessive amount of the major nitrogenous waste material in urine and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood; a potentially fatal condition.
ureter Tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
ureter Tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
ureteroileostomy New opening between a ureter and the ileum (for removal of urine after cystectomy). New opening of the ureters to an isolated portion of the ileum that has been removed from its normal location and connected to the outside of the body. It serves as a pass
ureteroneocystostomy Surgical transplantation of a ureter to a new site in the urinary bladder. This occurs with a kidney transplant.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
ureteroplasty Surgical repair of a ureter.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
urethral stricture Narrowing of the urethra.
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra.
urethroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra.
uric acid Nitrogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells. It is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
urinalysis Series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine. It includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar, bacteria, and protein in blood.
urinary bladder Hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body. Urinary catheterization is passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
urinary catheterization Passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
urinary incontinence Involuntary passage of urine; inability to hold urine in the bladder.
urinary retention Inability to release urine from the bladder.
urinary retention Inability to pass urine from the bladder which is held back in the urinary bladder.
urination Process of expelling urine; other terms used are micturition and voiding
vesicoureteral reflux Backflow of urine from the urinary bladder to the ureters.
voiding Another term for urination (process of expelling urine)
voiding cystourethrogram X-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra.
Wilms tumor Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in childhood.
albumin/o albumin (a major protein in blood plasma)
azot/o urea; nitrogen
bacteri/o bacteria
cali/o calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney)
calic/o calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney)
cyst/o urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
dips/o thirst
glomerul/o glomerulus
kal/o kal/i potassium
ket/o ketones; acetones
keton/o ketones; acetones
lith/o stone; calculus
meat/o meatus (opening)
natr/o sodium
nephr/o kidney
noct/o night
olig/o scanty (few, little)
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
ren/o kidney
trigon/o trigone (triangular area within bladder)
ur/o urine; urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
urin/o urine
vesic/o urinary bladder
hemat/o blood
gluc/o, glucos/o sugar
-poly many, much
dys- difficult; painful
-poietin substance that forms
-tripsy crushing
-oma tumor
a- no, not, without
-emia blood condition
bacteri/o bacteria
-itis inflammation
hyper- above, excessive
inter- between
-iasis abnormal condition
di- two (or could be used in a term as a shortened version of dia- meaning complete i.e. diuresis)
-uria urination; condition of urine
af- toward
ef- away from
en- in; within
erythr/o red
-tension pressure
-ar pertaining to
hemat/o blood
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
hydr/o water
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
-osis condition; usually abnormal
-sis condition; state of
-eal pertaining to
-ectomy removal, excision, resection
-scopy visual examination
-esis action, condition, state of
sten/o narrowing
-tomy incision
medull/o medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow
medi/o middle
-pathy disease (also means emotion)
para- near, beside, along the side of (also means abnormal; apart from)
peri- surrounding
angi/o vessel (blood)
-plasty surgical repair
carcin/o cancerous; cancer
col/o colon (large intestine)
-al pertaining to
-in -ine as substance
retro- behind; back; backward
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
in- in; into; not (as in incontinent)
-gram record
albumin A major protein in blood plasma
ketones These and acetones are formed when fatty acids are broken down (in the liver) to be used as fuel (instead of sugar); can accumulate in the blood and urine
turbid Cloudy
bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile
BUN (blood urea nitrogen) a laboratory test that measures the urea levels of blood urea – NORMALLY level is low because urea is excreted in the urine continuously. However, when the kidney is diseased or fails, urea accumulates in the blood (called uremia), leading to unconsciousn
Created by: mscardenas