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A&P 2 - E4 - P4

A&P 2 - Exam 4 - Part 4 - Acid-Base Balance

QuestionAnswer
______ is one of the most important of the body's homeostatic mechanisms. acid-base balance
Acid-base balance refers to regulation of ______ ion concentration in body fluids. hydrogen
Precise regulation of ______ at the cellular level is necessary for survival. pH
Slight pH changes have dramatic effects on ______. cellular metabolism
_______ is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. pH
pH is the _______ of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. negative logarithm
______ is formed by aerobic glucose metabolism. carbonic acid (H2C03)
What 5 elements are sources of pH? carbonic acid (H2CO3), lactic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, acidic keytone bodies
Carbonic acid (H2C03) is formed by ______ metabolism. aerobic glucose
______ is formed by anaerobic glucose metabolism. lactic acid
Lactic acid is formed by ______ metabolism. anaerobic glucose
______ acid is formed by the oxidation of ______ containing amino acids. sulfuric, sulfur
Sulfuric acid is formed by the ______ of sulfur containing ______. oxidation, amino acids
______ acid is formed in the breakdown of ______ and ribonucleotides. phosphoric, phosphoproteins
Phosphoric acid is formed in the breakdown of phosphoproteins and ______. ribonucleotides
______ are formed in the breakdown of fats. acidic keytone bodies
Acidic keytone bodies are formed in the breakdown of ______. fats
What are 3 acidic keytone bodies? acetone, acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid
The acid-forming potential of foods is determined by ______, ______, and ______ content. chloride, sulfur, phosphorus
Chemical pH control mechanisms are _______ action buffers. rapid
______ pH control mechanisms are rapid action buffers. chemical
What are 3 chemical pH control mechanism buffer systems? bicarbonate (HCO3-), phosphate (HPO4-2 or H2PO4-), protein
Physiological pH control mechanisms are _______ action buffers. delayed
______ pH control mechanisms are delayed action buffers. physiological
What are 2 physiological pH control mechanism responses? respiratory, renal
pH control mechanisms are extremely effective and normally maintain pH within very narrow range of _______. 7.36 to 7.41
______ are substances that prevent marked change in the pH of a solution when an acid or base is added to it. buffers
Buffers consist of weak ______ (or its ______) and ______ salt of that acid. acid, salt acid, basic
Buffer pairs are present in body fluids; mainly _______, proteins, ________, acid phosphate, and sodium and potassium salts of these weak acids. carbonic acid, hemoglobin
Buffer pairs are present in body fluids; mainly carbonic acid, ______, hemoglobin, ______, and sodium and potassium salts of these weak acids. proteins, acid phosphate
Buffer pairs are present in body fluids; mainly carbonic acid, proteins, hemoglobin, acid phosphate, and ______ and ______ salts of these weak acids. sodium, potassium
The action of buffers is to prevent marked changes in the ____ of body fluids. pH
______ acids, such as hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, and ketone bodies are buffered mainly by ______. nonvolatile, sodium bicarbonate
Nonvolatile acids, such as ______, ______, and ______ are buffered mainly by sodium bicarbonate. hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, ketone bodies
______ acids, chiefly carbonic acid, is buffered mainly by ______ salts of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin. volatile, potassium
Volatile acids, chiefly ______ acid, is buffered mainly by potassium salts of ______ and ______. carbonic, hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin
The ______ makes it possible for carbonic acid to be buffered in the red blood cell and then carried as ______ in the plasma. chloride shift, bicarbonate
The chloride shift makes it possible for ______ to be buffered in the red blood cell and then carried as bicarbonate in the plasma. carbonic acid
Bases are buffered mainly by ______ (when homeostasis of pH at ___ exists) carbonic acid, 7.4
______ are buffered mainly by carbonic acid (when homeostasis of pH at ___ exists) bases, 7.4
The ______ equation is a mathematical formula that explains the relationship between hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids and the ratio of base bicarbonate to carbonic acid. Henderson-Hasselbalch
The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mathematical formula that explains the relationship between ______ ion concentration of body fluids and the ratio of base bicarbonate to carbonic acid. hydrogen
The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mathematical formula that explains the relationship between hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids and the ratio of base ______ to ______ acid. bicarbonate, carbonic
Buffers cannot maintain normal pH without adequate functioning of ______ and ______ pH control mechanisms. respiratory, urinary
______ cannot maintain normal pH without adequate functioning of respiratory and urinary pH control mechanisms. buffers
The amount of blood ______ directly relates to amount of ______ and therefore to the concentration of H+. carbon dioxide, carbonic acid
The amount of blood carbon dioxide directly relates to amount of carbonic acid and therefore to the concentration of __. H+
With increased respirations, less ______ remains in blood, hence _____ carbonic acid and _____ H+. carbon dioxide, less, fewer
With decreased respirations, more ______ remains in blood, hence ______ carbonic acid and ______ H+. carbon dioxide, more, more
______ -> ______ -> which increases the elimination of CO2 -> which decreases blood CO2 -> which decreases blood ______ -> which decreases blood H+, that is, ______ blood pH -> tends to correct ______, that is, to restore normal pH. acidosis, hyperventilation, caronic acid (H3CO3), increases, acidosis
Acidosis causes ______. hyperventilation
______ causes hyperventilation. Acidosis
Prolonged hyperventilation, by decreasing blood ___ excessively, may produce ______. H+, alkalosis
Alkalosis causes ______, which tends to correct alkalosis by increasing blood ______ and therefore blood ______ and ______. hypoventilation, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonic acid (H2CO3), H+
Prolonged hypoventilation, by eliminating too little _____ causes increase in blood carbonic acid (H2CO3) and consequently in blood H+, thereby may produce ______. carbon dioxide (CO2), acidosis
The kidneys can eliminate more ____ while reabsorbing more _______ when pH tends toward acid side. H+, base
The kidneys can eliminate fewer ___ while reabsorbing less ______ when pH tends toward alkaline side. H+, base
What is H2CO3? carbonic acid
What is HCO3-? bicarbonate
What is HPO4-2 or H2PO4-? phosphate
The secretion of ______ into urine occurs when blood CO2, H2CO3, and H+ increase above normal. H+
The secretion of H+ into urine occurs when blood ______, ______, and ______ increase above normal. carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonic acid (H2CO3), H+
______ tubules secrete more H+ into urine and then reabsorb sodium into blood in exchange for the H+ excreted. distal
Distal tubules secrete more ______ into urine and then reabsorb sodium into blood in exchange for the ______ excreted. H+, H+
Distal tubules secrete more H+ into urine and then reabsorb ______ into blood in exchange for the H+ excreted. sodium
What is NH3? ammonia
When blood hydrogen ion concentration increases, distal tubules secrete more ______, which combines with H+ of urine to form ______ ions. ammonia (NH3), ammonium
Ammonium ion displaces basic ion (mainly ______) from a salt; basic ion is then reabsorbed back into blood in exchange for ______ ion excreted. sodium, ammonium
What acid-base imbalance is caused by a bicarbonate deficit? metabolic acidosis
What acid-base imbalance can be caused by untreated diabetes or starvation? metabolic acidosis
What acid-base imbalance is caused by a bicarbonate excess? metabolic alkalosis
What acid-base imbalance can be caused by improper use of antacids or vomiting? metabolic alkalosis
What acid-base imbalance is caused by carbonic acid excess? respiratory acidosis
What acid-base imbalance can be caused by pneumonia, emphysema, or a barbiturate overdose? respiratory acidosis
What acid-base imbalance is caused by carbonic acid deficit? respiratory alkalosis
What acid-base imbalance can be caused by hyperventilation due to fever? respiratory alkalosis
Created by: K1N1V on 2011-11-19



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