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Respiratory terms&+

Respiratory short forms & terminology

term/short formAnswer
Carbon dioxide(CO2) tasteless,colourless,odorless gas produced by body cells during metabolic process.
Cilia Any hairlike structure. (ei. nose hair)
Diffuse Moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces.
Homeostasis State which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain a constant internal environment.
Mucous Membrane Moist tissue layer lining hollow organs 7 cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucosa
pH Symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
Septum Wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the two nostrils.
Serous Membrane Thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
nas/o nose
rhin/o ex.rhin/o/plasty : surgical repair of the septum.
sinus/o sinus,cavity ex. sinus/o/tomy: incision of any of the sinuses.
-tomy incision
tonsill/o tonsils
pharyng/o pharynx(throat)
pharyng/o/scope instrument for examining the pharynx.
-scope instrument for examining
epiglott/o epiglottis
-itis inflammation
laryng/o larynx(voice box)
-plegia paralysis
trache/o trachea(windpipe)
bronchi/o bronchus(plural,bronchi)
-ectasis dilation,expansion
bronch/o bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole
alveol/o alveolus (air sac)
-ar pertaining to
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o air;lung
-ectomy excision
pneumon/o air;lung
-ia condition
pulmon/o lung
-logist specialist in the study of
anthrac/o coal,coal dust
-osis abnormal condition;increase(used primarily with blood cells)
atel/o incomplete;imperfect
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
lob/o lobe
orth/o straight
-pnea breathing
ox/i oxygen
ox/o oxygen
-meter instrument for measuring
hyp- under,below,deficient
-emia blood condition
pector/o chest
-algia pain
steth/o ex.steth/o/scope; instrument used for examining the chest.
thorac/o ex. thorac/o/pathy; disease of the chest.
-pathy disease
phren/o diaphragm;mind
-spasm involuntary contraction,twitching
spir/o breathe
-capnia carbon dioxide (CO2)
-osmia smell
an- without,not
-phonia voice
dys- bad,painful,difficult
a- without,not
-ptysis spitting
-thorax chest
py/o pus
brady- slow
eu- good,normal
tachy- rapid,fast
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia absence of the sence of smell
apnea temporary loss of breathing
asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen.
astelectasis collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic & affect all part of a lung.
atel incomplete;imperfect
Cheyne-Stokes respiration Repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all.
compliance Ease with which lung tissue can be stretched.
Coryza Head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
Crackle Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates,spasms,hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-full alveoli; also called rale.
Croup Common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and, sometimes, lungs.
Deviated nasal septum Displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils.
Epiglottitis Severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis & supraglottis structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 & 12 years of age.
Epistaxis Nosebleed;nasal hemorrhage.
Finger clubbing Enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers & toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease.
Hypoxemia Deficiency of oxygen in the blood.
Hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen in tissues.
Pertussis Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough.
DPT Diptheria-Pertussis-Tetanus; the immunization of infants, is effective in the prevention of pertussis.
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis.
Pneumoconiosis Disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust(anthracosis),stone dust(chalicosis), iron dust(siderosis) & asbestos particles(asbetosis).
Pulmonary edema Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues & alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure.
Pulmonary embolus Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot,tissue,air bubbles,& bacteria).
Rhonchus Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation.
Stridor High-pitched,harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Completely unexpected & unexplained death of an apparently normal,healthy infant, usually less than 12months of age; also called crib death.
Wheeze Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway.
Mantoux test Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the are around the test site becomes red & swollen.(A positive mantoux test suggets a past or present exposure to TB or past TB vaccination)
Oximetry Noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry.
Polysomnography Test of sleep cycles & stages using continuous recordings of brain waves (EEGs),electrical activity of muscles,eye movement(electro-oculogram),respiratory rate,blood pressure,blood oxygen saturation,heart rhythm & sometimes,direct observation of person.
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) Multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in & expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane.
poly- many;much
somn/o sleep
Spirometry Measurment of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity & flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air.
Bronchoscopy Visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope(flexible fiberoptic or rigid)inserted through the mouth & trachea for direct viewing of structures or of projection on a monitor.
Laryngoscopy Visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors,foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities.
Mediastinoscopy Visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart,trachea,esophagus,bronchus,thymus, & lymph nodes.
Mediastin/o Mediastinum
Arterial blood gas (ABG) Test that measures partial pressure of oxygen (Po2),carbon dioxide(Pco2),pH(acidity or alkalinity),& bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample.
Sputum culture Microbial test used to indentify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pnemonias.
Sweat test Measurement of the amount of salt(sodium chloride) in sweat. used almost exclusively in children to confirm cystic fibrosis.
Throat culture Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci.
Radiography Process of producing images using x-ray passed through the body or area & captured on a film.
Radi/o Radiation,X-ray;radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
Thoracic (chest) Images of the chest taken from anteroposterior (AP)projection, or combination of these projections.
Scan Imaging procedure that gathers information about a specific organ or structure of the body. In some cases, small amounts of injected radionuclide(tracer) are used to enhance images.
Lung Nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli.
Aerosol therapy Lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways.Techniques include nebulizers,metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), & dry powder inhalers (DPIs)
Lavage Irrigating or washing out of an organ,stomach,bladder,bowel,or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid.
Antral Irrigation of the antrum(maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis.
Postural drainage Positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage or secretions from the bronchi & lobes of the lungs.
Pleurectomy Excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal.
Pneumectomy Excision of a lung.
Rhinoplasty Reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes.
Septoplasty Surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures.
Thoracentesis Surgical puncture & drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis.
Tracheostomy Surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck & into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted.
Antihistamines Block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissue.
Antitussives Relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain.
Bronchodilators Stimulate bronchial muscles to relax,thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow.
Corticosteriods Act on the immune system by blocking production of substances that trigger allergic & inflammatory actions.
Decongestants Constrict blood vessels of nasal passages & limit blood flow,which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passageways.
Expectorants Liquify respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes.