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Chapter 4 Socials


2 choices of Scottish tenant farmers -move to industrialized cities -move to BNA
How Lord Selkirk proposed to solve crisis within HBC group & problems associated with crofters (/2) -using his fortune to create agricultural colonies for displaced crofters. -1810: established settlements in Upper Canada + Maritimes
Red River Valley modern day location North Dakota, South Manitoba
2 policies of Miles Macdonnell to protect new colonists entering Red River area -Pemmican Proclamation -ordering NWC employees to vacate their posts in Red River Balley within 6 months.
Main events that led up to Battle of 7 Oaks (/5) 1. 1816: group of Metis + Grant raided HBC boat brigade on Assiniboine River 2. They seized a lot of pemmican 3. A month later, Grant + group of Metis arrived at RRC. 4. SEMPLE + 28 of his men rode to Metis. 5. Semple + 20 men, exc. 1 Metis killed
Important Leaders: NWC/Metis (/3) Duncan Cameron, Cuthbert Grant, Louis Riel
Important Leaders: HBC/ Selkirk Settlers -Miles Macdonnell, Colin Robertson, Robert Semple (SS) - Lord Selkirk, John Schultz, William McDougall, Thomas Scott, John A. Macdonald
Revisionism passing of time can sometimes revise, the meaning of events, or change someone's reputation for better or worse
Rupert's Land area around Hudson's Bay named after cousin of King Charles II of England
Pieces 40kg bale
Factors local bosses of HBC for fur trade
Montrealers group of English merchants from Montreal who seized NWC
Hivernants individuals who stayed in country and shared in profits of NWC
Bullishness relaxed trading practices of NWC, inclding the selling of alcohol to natives + optimism in $ matters
Portage moving boats from body of water to another
Headhunter person who looks for skilled employees on behalf of a company HBC used this as a currency in the fur trade
Canot du nord (used by who, length, capacity, paddled by, material) small boats that the NWC used in the Northwest. They were about 7m long, could carry 1500kg of cargo, and were paddled by 6 people. East Coast= birch, West Coast= Cedar. Canots du Nord were used in small rivers.
canot du maitre canoes used by the NWC for the journey from Fort William to Montreal (used on large rivers)
drainage baisin land drained by rivers
York boats (material, used by who, length, capacities, where used) -a double ended boat made of wood, by HBC -13 meters long, could be sailed or paddles -First ones 3000 kg, newer ones 6000 kg -Lake Superior
middle man acts as dealer between two parties who want to exchange goods
Bois rule/ literal meaning -what people of French-Native ancestry used to call themselves. -burnt wood
HBC Bullishness allowed NWC to stretch its networks as far west as BC, as far north as Great Slave Lake
Seigneurial pattern long-lot patterns used in New France
Pemmican mix of dried meat, fat, lard and/or berries
Who encouraged fur traders to marry natives? Why? NWC, because they thought it would help ensure trading loyalty
Who forbade its employees to marry natives? Why? What did it try to issue? Was it successful? HBC, because they were concerned about supporting too many descendants, tried to issue a celibacy policy (unsuccessful)
Why Metis Bison hunts were strict? What was one example of punishment helped prevent conflict, death, injury ... Destruction of property
indirect trade When you intend on buying something from somebody, but you have to go through someone else, causing more money to be spent
direct trade trade with one person
1821 HBC + NWC merged Both companies were struggling financially, there were lawsuits over the Red River Colony, and neither company could survive full-scale operations.
Shares of HBC 45%
Shares of NWC 55%
Who's trade route was more efficient and why? HBC because it provided ships and easier transportation
Who was George Simpson? What was he known as? Why? He was the new head of the HBC, and was a Scottish sugar broker. He was known as the Little Emperor due to his small stature and autocratic manner
Why free trade of 1849 was victory for Metis? HBC monopoly had been broken despite the judge's hostality (Adam Thom)
Adam Thom Judge presiding over 4 Metis men charged with illegal trading. He was hostile towards French speaking Metis.
Bannock type of flatbread
Who was George Simpson's wife? What age was she when he married her? Frances Simpson, 18
Why wasn't G. Simpson well liked in Red River area? racist, unmerciful, autocratic, many Metis relatives but refused to communicate with them
What does Frances Simpson announce? She wouldn't communicate with Metis relatives of HBC employees
What happened as a result of the Simpsons' attitudes toward society? (RRC) Isolated from the community
"Warden of the Plains" looks after bison hunt
These three people/ groups were problems (Hint: merger) Cuthbert Grant, Robert Semple, White Settlers the problem
Why were the R. River Carts unique? made of wood only- NOTHING ELSE!
6 things that increased tension in Red River area crop failure, protestants, economic problems, bison disappearing, cash strapped HBC lost interest in area, Schultz championed Canadian interests, addt'ly; Metis never made legal claim to their land
Why HBC wanted to relinquish control over Rupert's land -difficult to control vast territory -more settlers moving into Northwest
When did the Canadian government receive control of Rupert's land? Who did they need? How did this result in a rebellion? November 1869, needed Louis Riel, the Metis weren't informed of this event + Canadian government & HBC planning on selling land
Was Riel's provisional government lega? Two reccomendations of this? It was illegal, creation of Manitoba, Metis List of Rights
Riel seized Schultz and who else? Why? 48 of his followers, they had plotted to free prisoners
Who executed Thomas Scott and why? Louis Riel/ his provisional government, because he was being rude to the prison guards and threatened to kill Riel
Metis National Committee (MNC) Committee formed by Riel and other Metis to represent Metis interests
Dr. John Schultz (/3) -one of first immigrants in 1860 -didn't complete medical degree, interested in business -took over NorWester
What did the Metis list of rights do? Was in Canadian or American? When were they adopted? Canadian document, Canadian, December 1, 1869
Entered Confederation on May 2, 1780 + 2 concessions created for Metis Manitoba -Metis List of Rights (Manitoba Act), 1.4 million acres of land
What happened to Louis Riel and members of provisional government? Louis tried to flee the Winnipeg area because he was afraid of being killed. The other members who remained in the area were given amnesty, whereas Riel wasn't.
First 5 provinces to join Canada Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Manitoba
Result of Rupert's Land being transfered to government Received title to Rupert's Land (from Northwest Territories), Canada doubled in size, HBC received 1.5 million $/ 2.8 million acres of land
Who purchased Alaska from who and when? The US purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867
Manifest Destiny (/3) (annexation manifesto) believed that is was the US’ destiny to control all of North America. It was published after rioting. It was plan for the US to take over Canada
BNA Act caused Canada to become dominion
Fort Garry (seized by/why, what/when was created here, company, who imprisoned here) -Fort Garry Seized by Riel -Metis List of Rights(Dec.1, 1869) -HBC trading fort -seized by Riel due to firearms -Scott and Schultz imprisoned here
Orange Order violent movement/ group of people who hated French and Catholics
Manitoba Act (/4) 1.4 million acres of land for Metis, Catholic + Protestant education, ensured rights of Metis, made French and English official languages of province
Land Scrip certificates from Land Office granting people private ownership of certain portions of public lands,to Métis families by special warrant called "scrip."
Thomas Scott Ontario Orangeman, member of the Canadian part, was executed by Riel’s provisional government/Metis
Colonel Garnet Wolseley "Modern Major General", helped dispatch 1200 + made it clear that they would treat Riel/his followers as legitimate government
Black foot nation (what, leader) first nations group in Canada, Cheif Crowfoot,
Chief Crowfoot's Blackfoot name "Sapomaxicow"
Sir Sanford Fleming (Nationality, career, invented Canadian engineer/inventor, proposed worldwide standard time zones, Canada's first postage stamp, engineered Intercolonial/Canadian Pacific railway, founding member of Royal Society, founded Royal Canadian Instititute,
Fort Gibraltar (company, burned by, convinced what) NWC, burned by Robert Semple, convince Metis that Selkirk colonists intended war on them
Miles Macdonnell (issued, leader of, reputation) issued Pemmican Proclamation, leader of colonists in Red River, belligerent reputation)
Treaty of 1817 (who, what, Selkirk's payment) Cree & Ojibwa, gaining possession of RRV along Red River + Assiniboine Riber, 100 pounds tobacoo
Selkirk's Grant (why, who, size, where) Lord Selkirk was troubled by the displaced crofters so he used his own fortune to give them agricultural land/colonies. It was about 300,000km2 in today's Southern Manitoba and North Dakota
appointed secretary of Beefsteak club in November 1833, presiding judge of 4 men tried for illegal trade, hostile towards French speaking Metis Adam Thom
Upper Canada after Act of Union in 1841 Canada West
Formed in 1783 NWC
Formed in 1670 HBC
animal becoming extinct in 19th century due to demand of HBC/NWC beaver
white collar referringto clerical or professional workers
in a manner suggesting absolute power autocratic
What did Native people draw for European explorers and fur traders? mindmaps
Hierarchy people in authority from top to bottom
country that rules itself dominion
this animal was an important part of Metis culture bison
Thomas Douglas fifth earl of selkirk, responsibile for bringing colonists to red river
two wheeled wooden cart on prairies red river cart
encouraged fur traders to marry native women Northwest company
These people thought white collar jobs made them superior to red river settlement country-born
Who did the HBC sell Rupert's land to? Canada
This newspaper promoted hatred towards French/Catholic NorWester
- Duncan Cameron NWC Chief trader
- Cuthbert Grant Leader of Metis 1816, HBC
- Louis Riel Leader of Metis 1870s
- Lord Selkirk land grant for settlers
- Colin Robertson leader of colonists in red river, HBC NWC before)
- Miles Macdonell leader of colonists in red river
- Robert Semple governor of RRC
- John Schultz colonist, hate Metis, Norwester paper
- Willieam McDougall governor of Northwest territories
- Thomas Scott colonists, executed by Metis
work for works sake protestant work ethic
smallpox, measles two most deadly diseases
celibacy abstinence from intercourse
bison hunt schedule early summer and autumn
saddle horses and buffalo runners two types of horses the Metis used
Created by: Danica_1234