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Found of Nursin Ch15

Body Mechanics and Patient Mobility

QuestionAnswer
Abduction Movement of an extremity away from the midline of the body.
Adduction Movement of an extremity toward the axis of the body.
Alignment Relationship of various body parts to one another.
Base of Support Area on which an object rests; a stance with the feet slightly apart.
Body Mechanics Physiologic study of the muscular actions and the functions of muscles in maintaining the posture of the body.
Compartment Syndrome Pathologic condition caused by progressive development of arterial compression and reduced blood supply to an extremity.
Contracture Abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers.
Dorsal (supine) Lying Horizontally on the back.
Dorsal Recumbent Supine position with patient lying on the back, with head, shoulders, and extremeties moderately flexed and legs extended.
Dorsiflexion Bending or flexing backward, as in upward bending of the fingers, wrist, foot, or toes.
Extension Movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that increases the angle between two adjoining bones.
Flexion Movement of certain joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones.
Fowler's posture assumed by patent when head of bed is raised 45 to 60 degrees.
Genupectoral Patient kneels so weight of body is supported by knees and chest.
Hyperextension Position of maximum extension; extreme or abnormal stretching.
Immobility inablility to move around freely, caused by any condition in which movement is impaired or therapeutically restricted.
Joint Any one of the connections between bones.
Lithotomy (Position) patient lies supine with the hips and knees flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally (sometimes feet are positioned in stirrups)
Mobility A person's ability to move around freely in his or her environment.
Othopneic Pertaining to the posture assumed by the patient sitting up in bed at a 90-degree angle; patient may also lean forward supported by a pillow or over a bed table.
Physical Disuse Syndrome State at which an individual is at risk for deterioration of body systems as the result of prescribed or unavoidable inactivity.
Pronation Palm of had turned down
Prone lying face down on the abdomen.
Range-of-Motion (ROM) Normal movement that any given joint is capable of making.
Semi-Fowler's The position a patient assumes while lying in bed; the head of the bed is reaised to aboit 30 degrees and the foot of the bed is raised slightly.
Sims' Lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest; the chest and abdomen are allowed to fall forward.
Supination Kind of rotation that allows the palm of the hand to turn up.
Trendelenburg A position in which the patient is lying supine with the head lower than the body and legs elevated and on an incline.
The nurse is assigned to care for an 82-year old patient who weighs 252 pounds and is a bilateral below the knee amputee. What is the safest way to transfer this patient from bed to chair? A hydraulic lift with a Hoyer sling.
If you are assisting a patient ambulate and they become weak and complain of feeling faint and begin to fall, what is the most appropirate action a nurse should do to prevent patient injury? Support the patient while falling and allow them to sit on the floor.
What are the proper body mechanincs a nurse should use when picking up an item from the floor? Lower his or her body by flexing the knees and bending the hips.
A 72-year old patient with a stroke has slid to the foot of the bed. To use appropriate body mechanics, the nurse maintains a wide base of support and faces the patient in the direction of movement. Does this allow the nurse to exert less physical effort? Yes
What is an importing repostioning concern, for a patient that has had a total hip relacement? Body alignment.
What is the preferred position for a patient, when the nurse needs to insert a foley catheter into the bladder? Lithotomy
What change of position technique requires that the neck and spine of the patient are in straight alignment while the patient position is changed? Log-Rolling
The nurse and an assistant are to move a dependent patient from the supine to the lateral position and will move the patient to the ___________of the bed first. Center
An older adult patient has been lying in the supine position for 3 hours and tells the nurst the that she is too uncomfortable to move right now. The nurse will assess the patients need for _______ _____________ before helping her change postion. pain medication
The principle of good body mechanics includes maintaining a _______base of support and _________at the knees. wide/bending
A patient becomes faint while sitting on the side of the bed. To prevent injury to the patient, the nurse will lay the patient _________ ___________ and __________ the head straight back/support
After a patient has surgery and the nurse is getting the patient out of bed for the first time, a nursing diagnosis related to the safety of the patient would be what? Risk for activity intolerance.
What is the device that allows a patient to pull up with the upper extemeties to raise their trunk off the bed to assist with a transfer from a bed to wheelchair, or perform upper arm exercises? Trapeze bar
A necessay safety precaustion when helping a patient to ambulate is to have the patient wear no shoes. True or false False, the patient should wear well-fitting rubber-soled shoes or slippers.
Active and passive ROM exercises benefit the patient by preventing what? Contractures.
What can a footboard help prevent? plantar flexion of the foot (Foot Drop)
When using a drawsheet to assist in moving a patient up in bed, the nurse should as the patient to do what? Maintain a straight body position.
What are some important considerations regarding mobility to keep in mind with older adults. -Skin in more fragile and susceptible to injury. -support their joint when moving them in bed. -aging affects flexiblity and joint mobility. -weakness and hypotension are common s/sx in an older adult on bed rest. -orthostatic hypotension -positions
When moving a patient, what are some body mechanincs to consider? -adequate help or use mechanical aid -encourage patient to assist as much as possible -alignment of back, neck, pelvis, and feet -flex knees; keep feet slightly apart -use arms and legs, not back. -slide pt. toward yourself using pull sheet
Correct use of body mechanics states the feet should be___ to ___ inches apart. 6 to 8
Flexing the knees slightly in the correct use of body mechanics prevents what? Hyperextension.
What are some ways to protect you and the patient from injury while utilizing proper body mechanics? -carry objects close to midline of body -avoid reaching too far -avoid lifting when other means of movement are available -use devices(if available) -use alternating periods of rest and activity.
What are 5 purposes of mobility? -express emotion -self defense -attaining basic needs -perfrom recreational activity -completing ADL
Mobility is fundamental to maintianing the body's normal ____________activity. physiologic
Name some complications of immobility -muscle and bone atrophy -contractures -pressure ulcers -constipation and UTI -Insomnia -Anorexia -thrombophebitis
What are some interventions that can be used to prevent complications of immobility? -Reposition at least every 2 hours -fluid intake -well-balanced diet -transfer patients carefully;body alignment -prevent deformities (i.e...footboard) -progressive ambulation -antiembolism
What are some assitive devices for proper positioning? pillow, foot boots, trochanter roll, sandbag, hand roll, hand-wrist splint, trapeze bar, side rail, bed board, & wedge pillow.
What is a major monitoring responsiblity of nurses? To monitor frequently the neurovascular function, circulation, movement, and sensation (CMS) assessment.
When assessing neurovascular function, the nurse should check what? -skin for color -temperature -movement -sensation -pulses -capillary refill -pain
Ischemic tissue necrosis is likely to occur within __ to __ hours in a case of compartment syndrome. 4 to 8 hours unless the pressure is releived and the compartment syndrome is reversed.
What are the six P's S/SX of compartment syndrome -pain -parethesias -pallor -pulse absent -paralysis -palpated tense tissue
Created by: losmica on 2011-11-13



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