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PHM 315 ch 12

Eye Medical Terminology pg 386-395

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva (join together)
corne/o cornea
kerat/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body (circle)
ir/o iris (colored circle)
irid/o iris (colored circle)
lacrim/o tear
dacry/o tear
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/p eye
opt/o eye
phac/o lens (lentil)
phak/o lens (lentil)
phot/o light
presby/o old age
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (hard)
vitre/o glassy
-opia condition of vision
Anterior chamber fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris
aqueous humor watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers - provides nourishment for cornea, iris, lens
canal of schlemm duct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor to the veins and blood stream
choroid vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary body ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens
ciliary muscle smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body which contracts to assit in near-vision capabilities
ciliary processes epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
conjunctiva joining together, mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
cornea transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract(bend) light to focus a visual image
eyelid (palpebra) movable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
fovea centralis pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision (fovea = pit)
fundus (base) interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature at the back of the eye)
gland of Zeis oil glands surrounding the eyelashes
meibomian glands oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
iris colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
lacrimal glands gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
lacrimal ducts tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
lacrimal sac structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct
lens transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
lens capsule capsule that encloses the lens
macula lutea(macula) central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color (lutea=yellow)
nasolacrimal duct passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
optic disk exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins
optic nerve nerve responsible for carrying impulses or the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
posterior chamber space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aqueous fluid
pupil black circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
retina innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
cones cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light
rods rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
sclera tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
trabecular meshwork mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aqueous humor ass it flows into the canal of Schlemm
vitreous jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
asthenopia eyestrain (asthenia = weak condition)
blepharospasm involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia double vision
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of one or both eye balls
exophthalamus abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation secretion of tears
nystagmus involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball (nystagmos = a nodding)
photophobia extreme sensitivity to and discomfort from light
scotoma blind spot in vision (skotos = darkness)
refractive errors defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye causing improper focus on the retina
astigmatism distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina (stigma=point)
hyperopia farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina
myopia nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects while light rays fall short of the proper focus on the retina
presbyopia impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation
accommodation ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
amblyopia decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus refractive errors (one eye more near/far/astig than the other) or trauma. usually in one eye - aka Lazy eye
aphakia absence of the lens, usually after a cataract extraction
blepharitis inflammaion of the eyelid
blepharochalasis baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
dermatochalasis baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
blepharoptosis drooping eyelid usually caused by paralysis
ptosis drooping of the eyelid usually caused by paralysis
chalazion chronic nodular inflammation of a meibombian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
cataract opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis pinkeye;inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflammation of the tear sac (cyst/o= sac)
diabetic retinopathy disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage,bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) , leading to scarring and loss of vision
ectropion outward turning of the rim of the eyelid (trop/o = turning)
entropion inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
glaucoma group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum sty; as acute infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
irits inflammation of the iris
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
macular degeneration breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in a partial or complete loss of central vision
pseudophakia eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
pterygium fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea
retinal detachment separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis inflammation of the retina
strabismus crossed eyes; a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
heterotropia eye deviates to or away from nose
esotropia right or left eye deviates inward toward the nose
exotropia right or left eye deviates outward away from the nose
scleritis inflammation of the sclera
trichiasis misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
Created by: HugsAndKisses