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Skeleton System 1

Fundamentals of Body Structures

The skeleton has five general functions 1. It supports and stabilizes surrounding tissue such as? muscles, blood vessels, nerves, adipose tissue and skin.
2. It protects vital organs of the body such as the? brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs.
3. It assists in body movement (locomotion) by? providing attachments for muscles that pull on the bones that act as levers.
4. The bone marrow manufactures blood cells called? hematopoiesis.
5. It is a storage area for fat and mineral salts, especially? phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca).
Located at the ends of the long bones and the center of all others is a mesh-work of interconnecting sections called? cancellous (spongy) bone.
Yellow bone marrow is primarily made up of? fat cells (adipose tissue).
The shaft of the long bones is called the? diaphysis.
The two extremities of the long bones are called the? epiphyses.
The epiphyses are the section of the long bones that? grow vertically (growth plates).
A fibrovascular membrane that covers a bone is called the? periosteum.
The tissue found between articulating bones that acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction is called? cartilage.
Cartilage can also be referred to as a? meniscus.
The tissue that binds articulating bones together and allows a certain range of movement (ROM) is called? ligaments.
The tissue that connects a muscle to a bone is called a? tendon.
The formation of bone is called? ossification.
Bone cells are called? osteocytes.
Osteocytes are classified as? 1. Osteoblasts which will build bone. 2. Osteoclasts which will remove (reabsorb) bone.
What is required for osteoblasts to function? Weight (WT) bearing.
What is required for the osteoclasts to function? Nothing.
Bones whose length exceeds their width are called? long bones.
Examples of long bones include: 1. Two clavicles AKA? collar bones.
2. Two humeri AKA? superior arm bones.
3. Two radii AKA? lateral inferior arm bones.
4. Two ulnae AKA? medial inferior arm bones.
The proximal portion of each ulna is called the? olecranon (elbow).
Two femurs AKA? thigh bones (superior legs).
Two tibiae AKA? anterior inferior larger leg bones (shins).
Two fibulae AKA? posterior inferior leg bones ("little fibs").
Ten metacarpals AKA? hand bones.
Ten metatarsals AKA? foot bones.
Twenty phalanges AKA? fingers or toes or digit(s).
One finger or toe or digit is called a? phalanx.
Bones without a shaft are called? Short bones.
Examples of short bones include? 1. 16 carpals AKA? wrist bones.
The wrist bones are arranged in? two rows of four each.
All of the following are carpals except? a. Pisiform b. Triquetrum (triquetral). c. Lunate. d. Scaphoid (navicular).
All of the following are carpals except continued? e. Hamate. f. Capitate. g. Trapezoid. h. Trapezium.
2. Fourteen tarsals AKA? ankle bones.
The ankle bones are arranged in the? hindfoot and the forefoot.
Each hindfoot is made up of the? 1. Calcaneus (calcaneum) AKA heel. 2. Talus. 3. Navicular. 4. Cuboid.
The forefoot is made up of the? 1. Medial or first cuneiform. 2. Intermediate or second cuneiform. 3. Lateral or third cuneiform.
Thin bones found whenever there is a need for extensive muscle attachment or protection for soft or vital parts are called? flat bones.
Examples of flat bones include the? 1. Cranium AKA skull.
The bones of the cranium include? a. Two parietal bones AKA? the cranial roof.
b. One frontal bone AKA? forehead.
c. Two temporal bones AKA temples.
d. Located at the posterior base of the cranium is what bone? occipital bone.
The occipital bone is located at the? posterior base of the cranium.
e. Two zygomatic bones AKA cheek bones.
f. One maxilla AKA? superior jaw.
g. One mandible AKA? inferior jaw.
h. One nasal bone AKA? the bridge of the nose.
j. The depression where the eyes are found are called the? orbits.
2. One sternum AKA? the breast bone.
The superior section of the sternum is called the? manubrium (handle).
The medial section of the sternum is called the? gladioulus (blade).
The inferior section of the sternum is called the? xiphoid process (tip).
3. Twelve pairs of ribs? Ribs 1-7 are called the? true ribs (vertebrosternal).
Ribs 8-12 are called the? false ribs (vertebrochondral)
The last two was false ribs are called? floating ribs (vertebral).
4. Two scapulae AKA? shoulder bones (blades).
The lateral end of each scapula is called the? acromion process.
The muscles that move an arm are attached to the scapula at the? coracoid process.
The head of each humerus (superior arm) articulates with a? glenoid fossa.
5. The bones of the pelvis include the? ilia, ischia and pubes.
How would you make ischia, ilia, pubes singular? ischium, ilium, pubis.
6. Two patellae AKA? kneecaps
A typical vertebra consists of: 1. A thick disk-shaped anterior portion pierced with numerous small holes for nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone called the? vertebral body.
2. The passage way for the spinal cord called the? vertebral (neural) foramen.
3. The posterior projection called the? spinous process.
4. Two lateral projections called? transverse processes.
5. The posterior wall of a vertebral arch called the? lamina.
6. The sections that connect the vertebral body to a vertebral arch and are notched to allow passageway for spinal nerves called? pedicles.
The surface of any typical bone will exhibit certain projections and depressions. The projections are called? processes.
The depressions are called? fossae.
1. Any sharp slender projection is referred to as a? spine.
2. A large prominence usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments is called a? tuberosity.
3. A rounded or knuckle-like prominence is referred to as a? condyle.
4. A small round process is referred to as a? tubercle.
5. A process shaped like a pulley is referred to as a? trochlea.
6. A very large projection is referred to as a? trochanter.
7. A narrow ridge is referred to as a? crest.
8. A less prominent ridge is referred to as a? line.
9, A terminal enlargement is referred to as a? head.
10. The part of the bone that connects the head is referred to as a? neck.
1. A narrow junction between two bones is referred to as a? suture.
2. An opening through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass is referred to as a? foramen.
3. A long tube-like passage is referred to as a? canal.
4. A cavity within a bone is referred to as a? sinus or antrum.
5. A furrow or groove is referred to as a? sulcus.
How many bones does the human body have? 206
Created by: Penny S