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AR AP world history

Arkansas ap world history chapter 11

Indian Misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous American peoples;implies social and ethnic commonalty that did not exist among Native Americans; still used to describe Native Americans.
Toltecs Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of sedentary agriculture inMesoamerica; established capital at Tula after migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice.
Aztecs The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that penetrated into the sedentary zone of the Mesoamerican plateau after the fall of the Toltecs; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco.
Tenochtitlan Founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power.
Pipiltin Nobility in Aztec society; formed by intermarriage of Aztecs with peoples tracing lineage back to the Toltecs.
Tlacaelel Advisor to Aztec rulers (1427-1480); had histories of Mexico rewritten; expanded cult of human sacrifice as effective means of political terror.
Huitzilopochtli Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of human sacrifice and warfare;identified with old sun god.
Calpulli Clans in Aztec society; evolved into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Chinampas Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create “floating islands”; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs.
Pochteca Merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items.
Inca socialism An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively the whole.
Twantinsuyu Inca word for their empire; region from Colombia to Chile and eastward into Bolivia and Argentina.
Inca Group of clans (ayllu) centered at Cuzco; created an empire in the Andes during the 15th century; also title of the ruler.
Pachacuti Inca ruler (1438-1471); began the military campaigns that marked the creation of the Inca Empire.
Topac Yupanqui Inca ruler (1471-1493); extended his father’s conquests; seized the northern coastal kingdom of Chimor and pushed into Equador.
Huayna Capac Inca ruler (1493-1527); brought the empire to its greatest extent.
Split inheritance Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to the hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca’s mummy.
Temple of the Sun Inca religious center at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
Curacas Local rulers who the Inca left in office in return for loyalty.
Tambos Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
Mita Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential part of Inca control.
Quipu System of knotted strings used by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
Hernan Cortés (1485 – 1547) Led expedition of 600 Spanish soldiers to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
Anasazi Native American culture which thrived in the Southwest from 200 to 1200 C.E.; known for cliff dwellings and maize growing.
Hopewell Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200 to 500 C.E.; known for earthen burial and defensive mounds.
Pochteca Class of Aztec merchants that had hereditary status.
“Flowery death” Death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife.
Metates Stone boards used for grinding corn by hand.
Tihuanaco and Huari Two large cities found on Lake Titicaca which were part of the Moche culture (200 – 700 C.E.).
Viracucha Incan creator god.
Huacas Incan holy shrine were prayers were offered.
Yanas Incan class of people who were removed from their ayllus and served permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or nobility.
Created by: samyacosta