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image acqusition and

Gemoetric blue can be evaluated using what three star pattern, slit camera and pinhole camers
what pixel sice has a 512 X 512 matris witha 20-cm FOV? FOV/MATRIX=pixel size....20cm=200mm 200/512=0.39 mm/pixel
in electronic imaging, as digital imaging matrix size increases, pixel (increases or decreases) decreases
most laser film must be handled in total darkness
name two effects tht an in crease in kilovoltage will have more scatter radiation will be produced, and the eepsoure rate witll increase
decreasing field size from 14x17 in to 8x10 in, with no other changes will (increase or decrease) radiographic densith and (increase or decrease) the amount of scattered radiationa enerated within the part decrease and decreaase
the componnet of a CR imaging plate that records the radiologic image is the PSP
a lateral radioggraph of the c spine was made at 40 in using 300 man and 0.03 second exposure. If it is desired to increase the distance to 72 in, what should be the new mA setting, all other factors remaining constant old mAs/new mAs=old D^2/new D^2 9/x=1600/5187 9/x=1,600/5,184 x=291.6
regarding x-ray absorptiometry, is radiation dose low? yes
regarding x-ray absorptiometry, do only low energy photons get used no
regarding x-ray absorptiometry, photon attenuaiton by bone is calcualted (T/F) T
the luminescent light emitted by the PSP is transformed into the limage seen on the CRT by the ADC
using a fixed millampere-seconds and variable kilovoltaghe factors, each centeimeter increase in patient thinkenss requires what adjustment in kv? decrease of 2
ifa duration of 0.05 second was selected for a particualr exposure, what mA would be necessardy to produce 30mas mA x s= mAs 0.05x=30 x=600mA
x-ray photon energy is (directly or inversly) related to photon wavelwngth inversly
using an AEC system, how will the mAs be adjusted as the film-screen speed combination is decreased? it will remain the same
resolution in CR increases as laser beam size (inrcreases/decreases) and PSP crystal (increases/decreases) decreases/decreases
In radiography of a large abdome, name one way to minimize the amount of scattered radiation reching the IR collimation
does the feild size affect the exposure rate of the promary beam no
in general, as the intensification factro increases, radiographic density (increases/decreases) increases
radiographic contrase is a result of d__ t__ a__ & e__ c__ differential tissue absorption & emulsion characteristics
grid ratio = ____/___ height of lead strips/width of interspace material
a 5 in object to be radiographed at a 44 in SID lies 6 in from the IR. WHat will be the image width Image size/object size=sid/sod x/5in=44in/38in x=5.78 image width
in comparison with 60 kv, 28 will permit (lesser/greater) exposure lattitued, and produce (more/less) scattered radiation greater/more
mislaignment of the tube-part relationship results in ___distrotion shape
causes of grid cut off, when using focused reciprocating grids, include (1) inadewuate SID
using a short (25-30 in) SID with a large (14 X 17 in ) IR is likely to (increases/decreases)the anode heel effect increase
chemical fog may be attributed to --- developer temp, ___developer, and ___replenihsment excessive developer temp, oxidized developer and excessive replenishment
with a given exposure, as intensifying screed speed increases, how is radiographic density affected? increases
using a 48 in SID, hom much OID ;must be introduced to mag a object 2 times? 24 in OID
a particualr radiograph was produced using 12 mAs and 85 kV with a 16:1 ratio grid. THe radiograph is to be repeated using an 8:1 ration grid. What should be the new millampere seconds value old mas/new mas=old grid factor/new grid factor 12/x=6/4 8
name three phosphor variables that determines the quantity of fluprescent light emitted from a fluoresctent screen, thinkness, type and size of the phosphor
use of (high/low) kv exposure factors would remedy the effect of very dissmilar tissue densities high
name two methods of loimiting the production of scattered radiation prone position for abd pics, collimation to the smallest area possible
name two types of shape distortion elongation and foreshortening
during CR imaging, the latent image present on the PSP is changed to a computerized image by the ADC
is mA related to recorded detail no
is focal spot size related to recorded detail yes
is screen speed related to recorded detail yes
is OID related to recorded detail yes
a satisfactory pic was taken made using a 36-in SID, 12 mAs and 12:1 grid. If the exam will be repeated at a distance of 42 in and isong a 5:12 grid what should be the new mAs value to maintain the original density? old mas/new mas=old D^2/new D^2 12/x=36^2/42^2 thus x=16.33@42 then old mAs/newmAs=old grid factor/new grid factor 16.33/x=5/2 6.53
the greatest radiographic density will be produced by the combination of the (highest/lowest) mAs and the (shortest/longest) SID highest and shortest
does the mA have an effect on radtiographic contrast? no
name two factors that have a dignificant effect on radiographic contrast kV and grid ratio
what is likely to reslut form using single emulstion fril in an IR that has a two intensifying screens? descease density
a 15% decrease in kV accompined by a 50% increase in mAs will result in a (longer/shorter) scale of contrase shorter
does focal spot size impact recorded detail? yes
does subject motion impact recorded detail? yes
does SOD impact recorded detail? yes
how are mas and radiographic densith related in the process of image formation directly proportional
cassett front material can be made of what two materials carbon fiber and magnesium
if a radiograph exposed using a 12:1 grid ration exhibits a loss of density at itd lateral edges, it is probably becuse the SID was too (great/short) great
practices that enable a radiographer to reproduce the exposure time required for a particualt image include use of a (higher/lower) mAs, use of a (higher/lower) kV, use of (slower/faster) film-screen combination higher, higher, faster
if 400 mA, 10ms, and 90 kV were usd for a particualr exposure using three-phase, 12 pulse equipment, use of what time (in seconds) woudl be apporporiate for use on single-phase equipment to produce a similar change 0.02 seconds
name two materials that may be used as grid interspace materials plastic and aluminium
name two factors that can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect SID and IR size
an increse in the Kv is applied to the x-ray tube increases the exposure rate
exposure rate will decrese with an increase in SID
name the pathologic condition that will require a decrease in exposure factors osteoporosis
if a radiograph exhibits insufficient density, this might be attributed to inadequate __, and __ __ inadequate kv and grid cut off
name two methods that help reduce the procudtion of scattered radiation compression and beam restriction
will the use of a grid help reduce scattered radaition no
name two factors that accest botht the quanitiy and quality of the primary beam HVL and kV
the squeege assembly in an automatic processor functions to remove ___ __ from the films and is located near the ___ ___ escvess solution and located noear the crossover rollers
an AP pic of the femur ws made using 300mA, 0.03 second, 76 kV, 40 in SID, 1.2 mm focal spor and 400 speed film screen system. WIth all other factors remianing constant, what time would be needed to maintain desity at 44 SID using 500 mA? old mas/new mas=old d^2/ new d ^2 9/x=40^2/44^2 x=10.98 then we want 500 mA 500x=11 x=0.022
the sensitometric curve may be sued to identify ___ ___ porblems, and determine film ___ automatic processing problems and determine film sensitivity
in a PA chest beign sued for cardiac evaluationl the heart mesures 14.7 cm between its widest points. If the mag factor os lmpwm tp be 1.2, what is the actual diameter of the heart 12.25 cm
the microswitch for controlling the smnt of repnishemtn used in an automatic processor is located at the _____ ____ entrance roller
what is the propose of the thin layer of lead that is oftgen located behind the reat intensifying screen in an IR to prevent scattered radiation fog
(decreased/increased) mAs, (decreased/increased)kV, and (fast/slow) film screen speed is most likely to be associated with quantnum mottle decreased mAs, increased kV and fast screen film speed
what pixel sixe has a 2,048 x 2,48 matrix qith a 60-cm FOV? FOV/martix=pixel size so 60cm=600mm 600/2,084=0.35 mm
which of the following possess the widest dynamic range?: high speed screens, slow speed screens, AEC, CR CR
the exposure facrors of 400mA, 17 ms, and 82 kV produce a mAs value of mA x seconds 400 x .017=6.8
a change from 400 speed 200 speed would require what change in mAs it sould be doubled
a focal spot size of 0.3 mm of smaller is essential for mag radiography
what focal spot size is necessary for mag radiography 0.3 mm or smaller
name two exams that the anode heel effect can be important consideraterio lateral t spine and AP femur
a pic made with a parallel grid demonstrates decreased density on its lateral edges. This is most likely due to (decreased/increased)SID decreased
if 300 mA has been selected for a particualr exposure, what exposure time woudl be required to produce 6 mAs 300x=6 x=20
an increase in kV will serce to procude a longer/shorter scale of contrast longer
the functions of aoutomatic beam limiter decised inscluse reducing the production of scattered radiation
radiographic recorded detial is inversli related to what two things OID and imaging system speed
the single most impotant factor regualting radiographic contrast is kV
the lower the Kv the (shorter/longer) is the scale of contrast shorter
the device used to give film emilsion a predetermined exposure in order to test its response to processing is called the sensormiter
what device requires two exposures to evaluate focal spot accuracy? slit camera
becuase of the anode heel effect, the intenisty of the x ray beam is greatest along the (anode/cathode) end of the beam cathode
a film emulsion having a wide lattitude is likely to exhibit (low/high) contrast low
can changes in mAs affect recorded detali no
can changes in mAs affect optical density yes
can changes in mAs affect exposure rate yes
can changes in mAs affect quantity of x ray photons produced yes
low kV exposure factors ususally are indicated for radiographic exams using ___-___, ____media and (positive/negative) contrast agent water-soluble, iodinated media, negative
base plus fog is a result of __-tinted film base, ___ ____, and the ____ ____ blue, chemical developemnt, and the manufacuteinf process
a decrease in kV will result in a (increase/decrease)in optical density decrease
the cause of films coming from the automatic processor still wet can be insufficiten hardening action
the term ___ describes an emilsion's ability to recoed a range of densities and the degree of error tolerated with given exposure factors lattitude
a decrease from 200 to 100 mA will result in a decrease in what two factors exposure rate and beam intensity
what two apparatuses are needed for the costnructiopn of a sonsometric curve? penetrometer and densitometer
the quality of scattered radiation reaching the IR can be reduced throufh the use of what two things? air gap technique and a stationary grid
name three conditions that contribute to poor radiographic film archival quialty fixer retention, insufficient developer repelnishment, and poor storage conditions
what does a 5:1 grid allow for positoning lattitude
an x ray exposure of a particualr part is made and restricted to a 14 x 17 in feild size. the same exposure is repeated but the beam is restricted to a 4 x 4. COmpared, the seond image will have (more/less) density and (more/less) contrast less density and more contrast
when a slow screen film system is used with a fast screen film AEC system, the resulting images are too light
any images obtained using dual x ray absorptionetry (DXA) bone densitometry are used to evaluate accuracy of the region of interest
a pic made using 300 mAm 0.1 second and 75 kV shows motion unshapness but otherwise ok, The pic will be repeated using a shorter tiem. Using 86 kV and 400 mA, what shoudl be the new tiem? mA x time=mAs 300 x .1=30 then kV was increased by 15% same as dbl mAs now only 15 mAs is required so 400x=15 x=.0375 s x=37.5 ms
name two exposure type artifacts poor screen film contact, and motion
is chemical fog a exposure type articact no
when blue emitting rare earth screens are matched properly with the correct fils emulsion, what type of safelights should ce sued in the dark room (2) red and GBX-2
what effect will a stained intenisfyign screen have on the finished radiograph decreased densty
a compensating filter is used to even out widely differing tissue desnsities
boxes of film stored in too watm an area may be subject to film fog
what term is used to describe unsharp edges of time radiographic details blur
is lanthanum oxide a rare earth phosphor yes
is gadolinium oxysulfide a rare earth phosphor yes
is cesium iodide a rare earth phosphor no
as grid ratio is decreased, the scale of contrast becomes (longer/shorter) longer
x ray film emulsion is most sensitive to safe light for at what time after exposure
which focal spot size can be used for mag radiography; .2 mm .6 mm 1.2 mm or 2.0 mm .2 mm
if a 6 in OID is intrduced in a particualr exam, what cnahge in SID will be necessary to overcome magnification to compensate for every 1 in of OID, an increase of 7 in of SID is required. Therefore 6 needs 42 in
if a grid has lead strips 0.4 mm thick, 4.0 mm high and 0.25 mm apart, what is its grid ratio 4.0/0.25=16:1
what factor has the greatest effect on radiographic density SID
the continued emission of light by a phosphor after the activating source has ceased is termed phosphorescence
indigital imagein, as the size of the image matris increases the pixel size (increases/decreases) and spatial resoltion (increases/decreases) pixel decreases and resoution increases
exposed silver halide crystals are changed ito black metallic cilver by the reducers
gemoetric unsharpness is directly influenced by what factor OID
what factro can affect the amount of developer replenisher delivered per film in an automatic processor film size
what factor is directly related to photon energy kV
Created by: amanda.clark