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CH11 All the Rest

acidosis Excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis
edema condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid
exophthalmos condition in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Graves’ disease. This is generally caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone.
gynecomastia Development of breast tissue in males. May be a symptom of adrenal feminization.
hirsutism Condition of having an excessive amount of hair. Term generally used to describe females who have the adult male pattern of hair growth. Can be the result of a hormone imbalance.
hypersecretion excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland.
hyposecretion deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
obesity having an abnormal amount of fat in the body.
syndrome group of symptoms and signs that, when combined, present a clinical picture of a disease or condition.
Addison’s disease disease named for British physician Thomas Addison that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones. There may be an increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss.
Adrenal feminization development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male. Often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal virilism development of male secondary characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in a female. Often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex
Cushing’s syndrome set of symptoms, named after U.S neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing, that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of a tumor in the adrenal glands. Includes weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, osteoporosis.
Pheochromocytoma usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine. Symptoms include anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea
Diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. There are two distinct forms of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1, & non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2
Diabetic retinopathy secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) also called type 1 diabetes mellitus. It develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production. Patient must take daily insulin injections.
Insulinoma Tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes excessive amount of insulin
Ketoacidosis acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies (waste products). A serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed. Also called diabetic acidosis
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. Typically develops later in life. The pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin, but the cells fail to respond to it. Patients may take oral hypoglycemic to improve insulin function, or may take insulin
Peripheral neuropathy damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include either extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling
Tetany nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia. Hypoparathyroidism is one cause of tetany
Recklinghausen disease Excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones. Named for German histologist Friedrich von Recklinghausen
Acromegaly chronic disease of adults that result in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities. There can also be mood changes. Due to an excessive amount of growth hormone in an adult
Diabetes insipidus (DI) disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. There may be polyuria and polydipsia
Dwarfism condition of being abnormally short in height. It may be the result of a hereditary condition or a lack of growth hormone
Gigantism excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager. The opposite of dwarfism
Panhypopituitarism deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Often recognized because of problems with the glands regulated by the pituitary-adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes
Cretinism congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development
Goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
Graves’ disease condition named for Irish physician Robert Graves that results in overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Symptoms include exophthalmos and goiter. A type of hyperthyroidism
Hashimoto’s disease chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis, results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
Myxedema condition resulting from a hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult. Symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, swollen facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental lethargy
Thyrotoxicosis condition resulting from marked overproduction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss
Adenocarcinoma cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland. One cause of hypersecretion pathologies
Blood serum test blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands
Fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12-hour fast
Glucose tolerance test (GTT) test to determine blood sugar level. A dose of glucose is given orally or intravenously. Blood samples are then drawn at certain intervals to determine patient's ability to use glucose. Used for diabetics to determine their insulin response to glucose.
Protein-bound iodine test(PBI) blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine (T4) circulating in the bloodstream. The iodine becomes bound to the protein in the blood and can be measured. Useful in establishing thyroid function
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood
Thyroid function test (TFT) blood test used to measure the levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood stream to assist in determining thyroid function
Total calcium blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders
Two-hour postprandial glucose tolerance test blood test to assist in evaluating metabolism. The patient eats a high carbohydrate diet and then fasts overnight before the test. Then the blood sample is taken two hours after a meal
Thyroid echogram ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst
Thyroid scan test in which radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland. The gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors
Chemical thyroidectomy large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery
Hormone replacement therapy artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders. May be oral pills, injections, or adhesive skin patches
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy removal of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments
Lobectomy removal of a lobe from an organ. In this case, one lobe of the thyroid gland
Antithyroid agents medication given to block production of thyroid hormones in patients with hypersecretion disorders
Corticosteroids Hormones that regulate carbohydrate metabolism & have a strong anti-inflammatory action. Used to treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases & adrenal cortex hyposecretion disorders. Long-term use can cause osteoporosis & symptoms of Cushing's disease
Human growth hormone therapy hormone replacement therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth. Used to treat children with abnormally short stature
Insulin administered to replace insulin for type 1 diabetics or to treat severe type 2 diabetics
Oral hypoglycemic agents medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar; not used for insulin-dependent patients
Thyroid replacement hormone hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy
Vasopressin given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules
ACTH adrenocorticotropin hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone
BMR basal metabolic rate
DI diabetes insipidus
DM diabetes mellitus
FBS fasting blood sugar
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT glucose tolerance test
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
K+ potassium
LH luteinizing hormone
MSH melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Na+ sodium
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NPH neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
PBI protein-bound iodine
PRL prolactin
PTH parathyroid hormone
RAI radioactive iodine
RIA radioimmunoassay
T3 triiodothyronine
T4 thyroxine
TFT thyroid function test
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
Created by: AltheaMathews