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Digestive System

Stack #74297

Alimentary Canal oLong muscular tube oBegins at the mouth and ends at the anus oAccessory organs  salivary glands, tongue, teeth, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Mouth, Buccal, Oral Cavity oFunction  receives food as it enters the body
Digestive System Also known as the GI system (gastrointestinal) Physical and chemical breakdown of food for use by body Alimentary canal and the accessory organs
Actions in the mouth  Tasted Broken down physically by teeth Lubricated Partially digested by saliva Swallowed
Teeth physically broken down
Tongue contains special taste receptors; aids in chewing and swallowing food
Taste Buds Sweet & Salty(tip); Sour & Bitter
Hard Palate bony structure = roof of mouth; separates mouth from nasal cavities
Soft Palate behind hard palate; separates mouth from nasopharynx
Uvula muscular structure that hands from middle of soft palate = prevents food from entering nasopharynx
Mastication chewing
Salivary Glands (3 pairs = parotid, sublingual, submandibular) oFunction of saliva  lubricates during speech and chewing, moistens food and contains enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)
Salivary Amylase breakdown of carbs (starches) into sugars
Bolus food that has been chewed and mixed with saliva
Esophagus muscular tube dorsal to trachea Carries bolus to stomach Peristalsis moves food toward stomach
Stomach (blank)
Cardiac Sphincter circular muscle between esophagus and stomach; close after food enters stomach; prevents food from going back up
Pyloric Sphincter circular muscle between stomach and small intestine; keeps food in stomach until ready to enter small intestine
Chyme food in converted into a semi-fluid material called chime
Gastric Juices Hydrochloric acid kills bacteria, facilitates absorption, activates pepsin Enzymes
Hydrochloric Acid kills bacteria, facilitates absorption, activates pepsin
Enzymes •Lipase •Pepsin •Rennin
Lipase starts chemical breakdown of fat
Pepsin protein
Rennin milk digestion aid for infants, not present in adults
Small Intestine oAbout 20 feet long; 1 inch in diameter oReceives food from stomach in form of chyme o3 sections
Duodenum first 9-10 inches •Bile enters through ducts of gallbladder and liver and pancreatic juice also via ducts/tubes
Jejunum 8 feet; middle section
Ileum final 12 feet •Connects to large intestine at cecum
Functions of small intestine Digestion is completed •Products of digestion absorbed into blood stream for use of cells •Intestinal juices produced (by small intestine) contain enzymes that breakdown sugars into simpler forms
Intestinal Juices complete protein, sugar, and fat digestion
Bile emulsifies (physically breaks down) fat
Villi lines small intestine; fingerlike projections; capillaries absorb digested nutrients and carry them to the liver; where they are stores or released for use of body cells
Pancreatic Juice complete digestion process
Large Intestine o About 5 feet long; 2 inches in diameter
Large Intestine Funcitons: Absorption of waterAbsorption of any remaining nutrientsStorage of indigestible materials before elimination from bodySynthesis (formation) and absorption of B-complex vitamins and vitamin K by bacteria present in intestine Transportation of waste
Cecum first section; connected to ileum (small intestine)
Ascending Colon up on right side of body from cecum to lower part of liver
Transverse Colon extends across abdomen
Descending Colon extends down left side of body; connects with sigmoid
Sigmoid Colon s-shaped; joins rectum
Rectum 6-8 inches; storage area for indigestibles and waste
Anal Canal opens at a hole = anus
Anus opening; digestive waste is expelled through this opening
Vermiform Appendix small projection
Liver oLargest gland in the body oAccessory organ for digestive system oLocation: under diaphragm and in upper right quadrant of abdomen
Liver Functions (1) Secretes bile; emulsifies fats; water soluble necessary for absorption Stores sugar in form of glycogen; released later as needed Stores iron and certain vitamins Produces heparin; prevents clotting of blood Produces cholesterol
Gallbladder oSmall muscular sac oLocation: under liver, attached by connective tissue oStores and concentrates bile oBile needed to emulsify fats
Pancreas oFish-shaped organ located behind the stomach oProduces pancreatic juices to digest food oProduces insulin which is secreted into the blood stream; regulates burning of carbohydrates to convert glucose into energy
Liver Functions (2) Detoxifies substances; alcohol, pesticides Destroys bacteria in blood (taken in from intestine)
Created by: elizabeth265