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October 28, 2011

Nutrition Chapters 6 (Enery Balance)and 9 (Water balance)

Kilocalorie Large calorie unit used in nutrition science to avoid dealing with such large numbers (1000 calories= kilocalorie)
Metabolism The sum of the body processes involveding food into various forms of energy.
Describe the difference between voluntary body work and involuntary body work. Give examples voluntary-all activities related to a persons usual activities as well as aditional physical activites (running) Involuntary-all activities in the body not consciosly performed (breathing)
What are 3 energy yielding nutrients? Carbohydrates,Fats,Proteins
Describe the difference between nurtient density and calorie density. Nutrient density is dealing with the amount of vitamins and minerals countaines in the food where calorie density is dealing with the amount of fat in the food
Describe the body's 3 sources of stored energy Glycogen, Adipose Tissue, Muscle Mass
what are 3 demands for energy that determin the body's total energy requirements? Describe them Resting energy expenditure, Physical energy, and Themic effect of food.
What is a thyroid function test? measures the activities of the throid, serum thyroxin levels and serum protein bond iodine and radioactive iodine uptake
What are the 4 factors that influence the Basal Metobolic Rate or BMR? Lean body mass, Growth periods,Body temperature, Hormonal status
During times of illness, a fever causes the metabolic rate or BMR to increase or decrease? Increase
To maintain daily energy balance, food-energy _________, must match body-energy _________. Intake;Output
When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure________________________results Positive energy balance
A ___________hour reserve of glycogen is stored in the _________as is quickly depleated if not replenished 12-48;liver
Basal metabolic rate is controlled by what gland ans what hormone? Thyroid Gland; ?????
What soes the "thermic effect of food" mean? Is the food stimuates metabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorbtion,and transportation of nutrience to the cells, the overall stimulating effect is the thermic effect of food.
The sum of the resting energy expenditure, plus the energy expanded in physical activity and the thermic effect of food is known as the body's _____________ energy's requirement
the most abundant compound in the body is? Water
Water performs several essential functions in the body. List and describe them. Solvent-provides the basic liquid solvent for all chemical reactions within the body.Transport-water circulates thoughout the body in the form of blood and various other secretions and tissue fluids.Thermoregulation-water is necessary to maintain a stabl
List and describe the 2 compartments in the body that store water? Intracellular-the total water inside cell 40% to 45% total body weight.66% total body water extracellular-total body water outside the cell 20% of body weight. 34% of total body water
The body's state of dynamic balance is ________________ homeostasis
Plasma and tissue secretions surrounding cells make up what fluid compartment? Interstatial Fluid
Most of our body fluids are found INSIDE or OUSIDE the cells? why? Inside
Name 3 ways that water is avalible to the body 1. Water that is consumed 2. Water in foods that are eaten 3. Metabolism
there are 4 routes water normally leaves the body. List and describe them 1. Kidneys-peeing out waste 2. Skin-sweating with physical activites 3. Lungs-exhale releases water 4. Feces- feces is 70% water
There are 2 major electrolytes that work to maintain water balance between the intacellular and extracellular fluid compartments. What are they? What is their function? Sodim, Potassium
The major Electrolyte OUSIDE cells are? Sodium
The major Electrolyte INSIDE the cells is` Potassium
2 hormones that control operations in the kidneys to help maintain water balance are _______________- and _____________________ Antiduretic Hormone Mechanism and Aldosterone Hormone Mechanism
The hormone that is responsible for promoting conservation of sodium in the kidney is? Aldosterone Hormone
The hormone that conserves body water is Antidiuretic Hormone
the 2 minerals that occcur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance are: Electrolytes and Plasma Proteins
2 primary plasma proteins are _________________and _________________. they stay in the blood vessels to matain the fluid in them and regulate circulating blood volume Albumin and Globulin
What 2 organ stsyems in addition to blood cirulation control overall water balance in the body? Gastrontestinal circulation anf renal circulation
Describe 2 disorders of water balance Dehyrdration- fluid loss that exceeds fluid intake (negative water balance) Edema- too much water makes tissue swell and isnt able to get back into blood vessels (swollen ankles, feet, and legs)
List the ways in which water and solutes move across membranes Filtration- water is forced through membrane pores when pressure outside membrane is different Active transport- necessary to carry particles up stream across membranes (required energy, ATP) Osmosis- Hypotonic to Hypertonic
Osmosis a passage of a solvent, such as water, through a membrane that seperates solutions of different concentrations, tending to equalize the consentration pressures of the solutions on either side of the membrane
Diffusion is the force by which particles move outward in all directions from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Filtration water is forced or filtered through the pores of membranes when the pressure outside the membrane is different
Active Transport is necessary to carry particles up stream across seperating membranes. Even when the pressures are against their flow
Homeostasis the body's state of dynamic balance
Pinocytosis larger molecules attach themselves to the thicker cell membrane and are engulfed by the cell
Interstitial Fluid plasma and tissue secretions sorounding cells make the fluid compartment
Intracellular Fluid the total body water inside the cell
Extracellular Fluid the total body water out side the cell
Plasma Proteins Mainly in the form of Albumin and Globulin, are organic compounds of large molecular size. they do not move freely across membranes
Created by: bjbert