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Histology-Bio201

BIO201 - Ch4 - Histology - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado College - AZ

QuestionAnswer
Stem Cells 1st to form in fertilized egg - can divide indefinately.
Microvilli Functions in absorption or secretion.
Basement Membrane Epithelial tissue connects to this - no cells - just proteins & sugars.
Simple Epithelial (Squamous) Lines blood vessels, lung alveoli - squished/flat cells.
Simple Epithelial (Cubodial) Lines glands & ducts - surface of ovaries & eye - cube shaped.
Simple Epithelial (Columnar) Tissues of stomach, intestines & uterus - column shaped.
Psuedostratified Simple epithelium - looks multi-layered - lines throat, nasal passage, sinuses...
Stratified Epithelial (Squamous) 2 or more layers - skin (keratinized), mouth, throat, esophagus.
What type of tissue is skin made of? Stratified Epithelial (Squamous).
What type of tissue is found on surface of ovaries? Simple Epithelial - Cubodial.
Which tissue type lines cavities or tubes? Epithelial tissue.
Anatomy Study of human body & parts.
Physiology Study of how the body functions.
Internal Environment Blood & the fluid around body cells.
Tissue with no cells in it - just proteins & polysaccharides? Basement Membrane.
What tissue lines the throat & nasal passages? Psuedostratified - Epithelial.
What is the tissue of the stomach? Simple Epithelial - Columnar.
What tissue lines the surface of the eye? Simple Epithelial - Cubodial.
What tissue lines the mouth? Stratified Epithelial - Squamous.
What tissue is found in the ducts of sweat glands? Stratified Epithelial - Cubodial.
What tissue is in the ducts of salivary glands? Stratified Epithelial - Columnar.
Gland Multicellular structure that makes & secrets products.
Exocrine Glands Secretes substances onto epithelial surface.
Mucus, saliva & earwax are secreted by? Exocrine Glands.
Endocrine Glands Make hormones that pour into extracellular fluid.
The thyroid & adrenals are ___ glands. Endocrine glands.
____ glands secrete substances onto epithelial surface. Exocrine glands.
Connective Tissue Most abundant in body.
Its cells secrete a "ground substance" of fibers. Connective Tissue.
Elastin Fibers Elastic & makes connective tissue stretchy.
Lung tissue has ___ fibers. Elastin
Fibroblasts Produce & secrete fibers & white blood cells.
Loose Connective Tissue Fibers & cells loosely arranged in ground substance.
Which tissue acts as frameowrk for epithelium? Loose connective tissue.
Two main types of connective tissue? Soft connective & specialized.
Soft connective Tissue Loose, dense irruglar & dense regular.
___ connective tissue found under skin Soft Connective - loose
Connective tissue found in organs. Soft Connective - Dense irregular.
Connective tissue found in tendons. Soft Connective - Dense regular.
Specialized Connective Tissue Cartilage, bone, adipose & blood.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Has fibroblasts & many fibers.
Forms protective capsules around organs that don't stretch. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Dense, Regular Connective Tissue Rows of fibroblasts sandwiched between fibers.
Cartilage Solid but pliable & resists compression.
Cartilage is made by? Chondroblasts.
Chondroblasts Cells that make cartilage.
3 types of cartilage Hyaline, elastic & fibro
Hyaline Cartilage Most common - ribs, nose, pre-bone in embryo.
Elastic Cartilage Flexable yet rigid - outer ear, epiglottis.
Fibrocartilage Packed w/collagen fibers - can take tremendous presure.
Cushions in joints & vertebrae disks Fibrocartilage
Bone Tissue Hardened by minerals - calcium salts.
Tissue that produces blood cells Bone tissue
Adipose Tissue Fat storage - soft matrix.
What tissue is blood considered? Connective Tissue - derrived mainly from so grouped w/in.
3 types of muscle tissue? Smooth, skeletal & cardiac
Striated Striped
Fascicles Bundles enclosed by connective tissue.
Skeletal Muscle Fastened to bone - striated - many mitochondria.
Smooth Muscle Not striated - contractile cells tapered at both ends.
Muscles in walls of arteries. Smooth muscle
Muscle in stomach & intestines Smooth muscle
Muscle in bladder Smooth muscle
Muscle in sphincters Smooth muscle
Muscle containing many mitochondria Skeletal muscle
Cardiac Muscle Only in heartwall - unevenly striated
Communication junctions Allow cardiac muscle cells to contract as one.
Neurons Cells that carry messages
Neurons consist of? Cell body w/nucleus & cytoplasm.
Two types of extension/cell processes? Branched & Axon
Branched process (dendrites) Dendrites pick up incoming messages.
Axon Conduct outgoing messages (mm - m long)
Nerve Cluster of processes from several nurons.
Neuroglia Accessory cells - 1/2 volume of nervous tissue.
Astrocytes Star-shaped cells that shuttle nutrients to neurons & insulate.
Tight Junctions Strands of protein that help stop leaking across tissue.
Gap Junctions Cannels that connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
What junctions assist in cell communication & transfers? Gap Junctions
Branched Dendrites Pick up chemical messages & pass them to outgoing axon.
3 types of epithelial membranes? Cutaneous, mucous & serous
Adhering junctions Cement cells together on tissues that stretch.
Desmosomes Spot welds @ plasma membrane of 2 cells.
Zonula Adherens Junctions Form tight collars around epithelial cells.
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter - facilites communication between neurons.
Mucus (mucosae) Membrane Pink, moist & line body cavities that open to exterior.
What membranes line digestive & urinary? Mucous membranes
What membranes line respiratory? Mucose membranes
Which membranes line tubes & cavities? Mucose membranes
Serous Membranes Occur in paired sheets - no glands - secrete fluids.
Which membranes are found in closed ventral body cavities? Serous Membranes
Which membranes lubricate smooth surfaces? Serous Membranes
Cutaneous Membranes Skin - keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
What is the epidermis made of? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
What membrane is a "dry" membrane? Cutaneous membrane.
Name the 4 basic tissue types? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle & Nervous
What is the basic role of epithelial tissue? Covering
What is the basic role of connective tissue? Support
What is the basic role of muscle tissue? Movement
What is the basic role of nervous tissue? Control
Fixed Preserving a specimen
Artifacts Minor distortions - alterations
Epithelial tissue occurs in body as? Covering and lining epithelium & glandular epithelium.
Epithelia form ___ between different environments. Boundaries
Roles of epithelium are? Protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, & sendory reception.
3 special characteristics of epithelium are? Polarity, specialized contacts & supported by connective tissue.
Apical surface Upper free surface exposed to body exterior or cavity.
Basal surface Lower surface attached to basal lamina.
Most apical surfaces have ___. Microvilli
The epithelial lining of the trachea have motile ___. Cilia
Nonglandular epithelia are bound together by __. Tight junctions & desmosomes
Tight junctions in epithelium keep proteins in the apical region & maintain __. Epithelial polarity
All epithelial sheets rest upon & are supported by __. Connective tissue
Just deep to the basal lamina is the __. Reticular lamina
The basement membrane is the combination of __ & __. Reticular lamina & basal lamina
Innervated yet avascular tissue Epithelium
Endothelium Simple, squamous - lymphatic & blood vessles, heart, & capillaries
Mesothelium Simple, squamous - in serous membranes & organ coverings
Function of cubodial & columnar epithelium is? Secretion & absorption
Function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium is? Secretion, particularly of mucus.
What type of tissue in in respiratory tract w/motile cilia? Psuedostratified columnar epithelium.
Major role of stratified epithelia is? Protection
What type of epithelium lines mouth & esophagus? Stratified squamous epithelium
What type of epithelium is lining below hollow organs? Transitional Epithelium
Which epithelium can easily stretch & change shape? Transitional Epithelium
Name the most known unicellular gland Goblet Cell
Unicellular Glands One-celled & scattered w/in epithelial sheets.
Multicellular Glands Most have ducts - more complex
Invagination Inward growth
Evagination Outward growth
Most multicellular epithelial grlands form by __ & __. Invagination & evagination
Endocrine glands lose their ducts eventually and are called ___. Ductless glands
Enocrine glands produce___. Hormones
Glands secrete hormones by ___. Exocytosis
Diffuse Endocrine System Hormone-producing cells scattered in different organs.
Mucin Mucus
What is mucus made of? Glycoprtein that dissolves in water and becomes a slimy coating.
Multicellular exocrine glands have what 2 parts? Duct & secretory unit (acinus)
acinus Secretory unit consisting of secretory cells.
Extends into glands proper & divides it into lobes. Supportive connective tissue - forms fibrous capsule.
Simple Glands Have unbranched duct.
Compound Glands Have a branched duct.
Types of secretory units in a gland. Tubular, alveolar, or tubuloalveolar
Merocrine Glands Exocrine gland that secretes by exocytosis.
Holocrine Glands Exocine glands that secrete until they rupture. Oil glands.
Apocrine Glands Exocrine glands - not in human but in animals. Pinches off.
Connective Tissue Proper Fat & fibrous tissue of ligaments.
All connective tissue arise from __. Mesenchyme - an embryonic tissue.
Extracellular Matrix Connective tissues are largely nonliving.
Ground Substance Contains fibers & holds larges amounts of fluid & functions as molecular sieve.
The fibers of connective tissue provide __. Support
3 fibers found in connective tissue. Collagen, Elastic, & Reticular
Collagen Fibers (White fibers) Collagen - crosslinked - extremely tough & high tensile strength.
Elastic Fibers (Yellow fibers) Elastin - stretches & recoils - skin & lungs.
Reticular Fibers Short fine fibers - branch extensively - network - form fuzzy nets - blood vessels.
Fibroblasts Form connective tissue proper.
Chondroblast Forms cartilage
Osteoblast Forms bone
Hematopoietic stem cell Forms bloood
Protoglycan Aggregate in cartilage
Plasma Cells Antibody-producing cells
Mast Cells Initiate inflammatory response
Heparin Anticoagulant
Stroma Formed by reticular fibers - labyrinth-like - frameworkfor lymph nodes & bone marrow.
Aponeuroses Sheet-like tendons that attach muscles-muscles or bone-bone - forms fascia.
Facia Fibrous membrane - wraps around muscles, blood vessles & nerves
Elastic Connective Tissue Very elastic, dense regular conn. tissue
Articular Cartilage Hyaline cartilage covering ends of long bones
Epiphyseal Plates Actively growing regions near end of long bones - childhood.
Osseous Tissue Bone
Intercalated Disks In cardiac muscle - junctions where cells fit tightly together.
Tissue repair occurs in 2 major ways. Regeneration & fibrosis
Fibrosis Scar tissue
Organization Restores blood supply - replaces blood clot w/granulation tissue.
Granulation Tissue Pink tissue containing capillaries - new capillary bed.
3 Primary Germ Layers Ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm
In adults, which tissues are highly miotic? Epithelia & blood-forming tissue
Which organs have abundant stem cells? Epidermis & intestine-lining cells
Neoplasm Benign or malignant "new growth".
Metastasis Traveling to other body parts
Adenoma Any neoplasm of glandular epithelium
Healing by first intention Edges of wound are brought together by sutures.
Healing by second intention Wound gap is bridged by lg. amounts of grandulation tissue - lg scars.
Keloid Abnormal proliferation of connective tissue
Marfan's syndrome Genetic disease - abnormalities in connective tissue - fibrillin defect. Loose joints.
Macrophages are found in __ & __. Areolar & lymphatic
Tendons are made of __ connective tissue. Dense regular
Salivary glands exibit __ glandular arrangement. Tubuloalveolar (compound)
Shock absorbing pads between vertebrae are formed by __. Fibrocartilage
Smooth muscle cellspossess central nuclei but lack __. Striations
Nervous tissue consists mainly of nerons and __. Supporting cells
Epithelial Polarity Have a free surface & a basal surface.
Stratified cuboidal is rare & found in __. Ducts of some of the larger glands.`
Sweat glands are __ glands. Merocrine.
Brown fat is found where? Between shoulder blades of infants.
Gland secretions produced by rupture are __. Holocrine glands.
Tissue with lots of collagen fibers are found __. In tendons, ligaments, fibrous joint capsuels & coverings.
Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium have __. Goblet cells.
Wharton's Jelly Fetal connective tissue - mucus connective tissue.
Cardiac muscle tissue is __ nucleated. Single
__ muscle has intercalated discs and is branched. Cardiac.
__ live in the lacuna of cartilage. Chondrocytes.
Salivary glands are __ exocrine glands. Compound tubuloalveolar.
Osteocytes exist in a tiny void called a __. Lacuna
What is the one functional characteristic common to all macrophage-like cells? Phagocytosis
Kidney tubules are made of __ epithelium. Simple cuboidal.
__ muscle cells are multinucleated. Skeletal.
Multiple rows of epithelia where cells are apx. same size from basement membrane to lumen is __. Transitional epithelia.
The 3 main steps in tissue repair are? Inflammation, organization, & regeneration.
__ muscle cells are multinucleated. Skeletal
Glycosaminoglycans Negatively charged polysaccharides.
Inability to absorb digested nutrients is a disorder of? Simple columnar epithelium.
The tissue type that arises from all 3 embryonic germ layers is? Epithelium.
Created by: Ladystorm on 2007-03-25



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