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Special Senses

Stack #72508

Special Senses oSenses allow body to react to the environment oSee, hear, taste, smell, and to maintain balance oBody structures receive sensation, nerves carry to brain, brain interprets and responds to message
Eye oSense of sight oLight rays transmitted to the optic nerve oOptic nerve relays information to brain for interpretation
Bony Socket houses eye, protects structures
Eyelids & Eyelashes protects from dirt/germs
Lacrimal Glands (tears) moisten/cleanse
Conjunctiva mucous membrane- lines eyelids and covers front of eye
Sciera outer tough membrane
Cornea circular/transparent structure in front of the sciera; allows light to enter the eye
Choroid Coat laced with blood vessels; nourishes the eye
Retina laced with blood vessels; nourishes the eye made of many layers of nerve cells which transmit light impulses to optic nerves
Cones sensitive to color; vision when light
Fovea Centralis area of sharpest vision
Rods used for vision when it is dark or dim
Iris muscular round structure- the “color of your eye”; control pupil size; light regulation
Pupil opening in the center of iris (black)
Lens behind pupil; light refraction (bend) to focus on the retina
Aqueous Humor clear watery fluid located between cornea & iris
Vitreous Humor jellylike fluid that fills the area behind the lens; maintains eye shape
Muscles provide eye movement
Amblyopia “lazy eye” Poor vision in 1 eye caused by dominance of the other eye If not treated by age 9 or earlier; blindness in 1 eye
Astigmatism Abnormal shape of cornea; blurred vision Corrective lenses for treatment
Cataract Cloudy or opaque lens Caused by aging or trauma Will see “halos” around lights; vision loss, milky pupil Treatment with surgery
Hyperopia farsightedness; difficulty seeing things up-close
Myopia nearsightedness; difficulty seeing things from far away
Prebyopia “old eye”; usually farsightedness
Strabismus “crossed eyes”
Conjunctivitis “pink eye” Contagious inflammation of conjunctiva caused by bacteria or virus (usually)
Glaucoma Increased intraocular pressure Occurs after 40 years old Most common cause of blindness Loss of peripheral vision; loss of night vision
Ear Controls hearing & balance
Hearing & Balance Sound waves transmitted to the auditory nerve
Ear consists of: •Outer Ear •Middle Ear •Inner Ear
Pinna or Auricle elastic cartilage with outer skin covering
Auditory Canal glands produce cerumen (wax)
Tympanic Membrane “eardrum” Separates outer ear from middle ear Vibrates to transmit sound waves to middle ear
Middle Ear 3 auditory ossicles •Transmit sound from tympanic membrane to inner ear oMalleus oIncus oStapes
Eustachian Tube (ET) oConnects to pharynx oFunction: allows air to enter middle ear; helps equalize air pressure on both sides of Tympanic Membrane
Oval Window membrane that separates inner from middle ear
Vestibule entrance to inner ear
Cochlea snail shell shaped •Contains “hairs” that compose the organ of Corti (receptors of sound waves)
Organ of Corti oTransmits impulses from sound waves to the auditory nerve oAuditory nerve transmits impulses to temporal lobe of verebrum, where they are interpreted as hearing
Semicircular Canals maintains balance
Hearing Loss •Conductive- waves not conducted to inner ear •Sensory- nerve damage
Meniere's disease •Inner ear disease- tinnitus, vertigo
Otitis Externa “swimmers ear”
Otitis Media middle ear infection
Myringotomy incision of the tympanic membrane with possible insertion of PE tubes (pressure equalizing)
Otosclerosis hardening of the ear structures (stapes)
Sense of Taste taste receptors located on the tongue
Four Main Tastes Sweet Salty Sour Bitter
Sense of Smell oNose is the organ of smell oOlfactory receptors in nasal cavity oImpulses carried from the olfactory nerve to the brain for interpretation oHumans can detect over 6,000 smells
Skin & General Sense oSense receptors for pressure, heat, cold, touch, and pain located in the skin and connective tissue oAllow the human body respond to its environment oHelp body react to conditions that could cause injury
3 auditory ossicles •Transmit sound from tympanic membrane to inner ear oMalleus oIncus oStapes (stirrup)
Created by: elizabeth265