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A&P 2 - E2 - P3

A&P 2 - Exam 2 - Part 3 - Immune System

Three external threats to life are ____________. bacteria, protozoans, viruses
Three internal threats to life are __________. tumors, cancer, abnormal cells
What are the two types of immune mechanisms? nonspecific and specific immunity
Nonspecific immunities act against anything recognized as _________. not self
Nonspecific immunities have a __________ response. fast
What are the four cell types within the nonspecific immunity system? neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, natural killer (nk) cells
Specific immunities recognize specific __________. agents
Specific immunities require extra __________ for recognition and reaction. time
What are the two cell types within the specific immunity system? T cell lymphocytes, B cell lymphocytes
Nonspecific immunity, species resistance is provided by _________ characteristics. genetic
The internal environment of the body is __________ for certain pathogens. not suitable
Mechanical and chemical barriers act as the __________ line of defense. first
Unbroken _______ and ________ act as a mechanical barrier. skin, mucus membranes
Four types of chemical barriers are _____________. sebum, mucus, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid
________ is a type of chemical barrier that contains pathogen inhibitors. sebum
________ is a type of chemical barrier that is difficult for pathogens to penetrate. mucus
________ are a type of chemical barrier that may hydrolyze pathogens. enzymes
________ is a type of chemical barrier that may destroy pathogens by inflicting acid burns. hydrochloric acid
Inflammation acts as the ________ line of defense. second
In the inflammatory response, chemical mediators are released from __________ cells. mast
In the inflammatory response, what three chemical mediators are released from mast cells? histamines, kinins, and prostaglandins
Histamines increase capillary ____________ and ____________. permeability, vasodilation
Kinins increase capillary ____________ and ____________. permeability, vasodilation
Both ___________ and ___________ increase capillary permeability and vasodilation. histamines, kinins
__________ act as chemotaxins. kinins
Kinins act as ____________. chemotaxins
___________ stimulate complement system. kinins
___________ cause fever and enhance pain. prostaglandins
What are the four signs of inflammation? heat, redness, pain, swelling
Phagocytes extend ____________ and encircle bacteria. pseudopods
What is the sac inside a phagocyte which engulfs bacteria? phagosome
Within a phagocyte, the fusing of a ___________ with a ____________ results in the digestion of bacteria. lysosome, phagosome
_________ are the most numerous phagocytes. neutrophils
Neutrophils are moved out of blood vessels by ____________. diapedesis
___________ are the first phagocytes to arrive. neutrophils
Neutrophils have a __________ life span. short
__________ is formed by dead neutrophils. pus
___________ are monocytes that have migrated out of the blood. macrophages
Macrophages are present in _________ areas of the body. many
__________ are a type of lymphocyte in addition to B cells and T cells. natural killer (nk) cells
Natural killer (nk) cells are especially important in killing _________ cells and ___________ cells. tumor, virus infected
Natural killer (nk) cells function by causing ___________. cell lysis
____________ is produced by virus-infected cells and inhibits virus reproduction. interferon
A ___________ is a group of plasma proteins that is inactive until stimulated. complement
A complement is a group of _____________ that is inactive until stimulated. plasma proteins
_____________ work together to destroy bacteria and some viruses. complements
Specific immunities act as the _______ line of defense. third
What are the first through third lines of defense? mechanical and chemical barriers, inflammation, specific immunity
___________ attacks specific, non-self agents. specific immunity
Specific immunity is orchestrated by what two different lymphocytes? B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes (B cells) produce ___________ and thus ___________ immunity. antibodies, antibody mediated
__________ attack pathogens directly. antibodies
__________ direct phagocytes to attack. antibodies
Antibodies direct __________ to attack. phagocytes
__________ provide cell mediated immunity. T lymphocytes
T lymphocytes attack ___________ directly. pathogens
Some surface markers on body cells are unique to ___________. lymphocytes
What is the system for naming cell surface markers? CD system
The CD system / cell surface marker refers to a single, defined surface marker ___________. protein
The CD system / cell surface marker can identify specific __________. T cells
Most lymphocytes are located in what four areas? bone marrow, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and spleen
What is the cycle of lymphocyte movement? structures -> blood, tissue spaces, lymph -> blood, tissue spaces
________ are large molecules that induce immune response. antigens
Antigenic determinants are also known as ___________. epitopes
____________ are the parts of the antigen that the lymphocyte recognizes as being foreign. antigenic determinants (epitopes)
___________ are large protein molecules that interlock with and destroy antigens. antibodies
___________ are antigen receptor sites on antibodies that have specific shapes. combining sites
What is the term for an antibody antigen receptor attached to the antigenic determinant? antigen-antibody complex
What is a group (family) of cells from one original? clone
What is a group of plasma proteins that work together to destroy foreign cells? complement
There are ___ stages of development and activation of B cells. 2
The first stage of development of B cells occurs in what three locations? yolk sac, red marrow, and fetal liver
Inactive B cells are developed by the time an infant is ___________ old. several months
Inactive B cells produce _________ and insert them on the cell surface. antibodies
___________ produce antibodies and insert them on the cell surface. inactive B cells
Surface antibody combining sites become ___________. antigen receptors
Inactive B cells circulate to the _________ and _________. lymph nodes, spleen
Activation of B cells involves inactive B cells and a specific antigen forming ____________ of the B cell plasma membrane. antigen-antibody complex
During the activation stage of B cells, rapid B cell division is triggered, forming __________ of cells. clones
During the activation stage of B cells, some new cells become __________ and secrete _________ molecules plasma cells, antibodies
During the activation stage of B cells, other new cells become __________ cells. memory B
__________ cells become plasma cells if exposed to the same antigen at a later time. memory B
Antibodies are also known as _______. immunoglobins
Each antibody is made up of two _________ chains and two _________ chains. heavy, light
Antibodies form a ____ shape. Y
The two variable regions of an antibody formed by the two branches of the Y are __________. antigen binding sites
The constant region of an antibody formed by the base of the Y is __________. complement binding site
___________ is a code for a specific antibody produced by combinations of genes. somatic recombination hypothesis
__________ mutations may give additional variations in antibodies. gene
Most __________ are eliminated, otherwise we would all have auto immune disease. "anti-self" B cells
What are the five classes of antibodies? IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
What class of antibodies makes up 75% of circulating antibodies? IgG
What class of antibodies is produced by secondary antibody response? IgG
What class of antibodies is produced in mucous membranes, saliva, and tears? IgA
What class of antibodies is produced by immature B cells? IgM
What class of antibodies is produced by activated B cells after contacting antigen? IgM
What class of antibodies is associated with allergies? IgE
What class of antibodies acts as an antigen receptor? IgD
What is an antigen-antibody reaction that deactivates toxins? neutralization
What is an antigen-antibody reaction that sticks to antigen cells and holds them together? agglutination
Another antigen-antibody reaction includes changing the shape of an antigen molecule on the surface of a cell to expose the _____________. complement-binding site
The ___________ function of an antibody is a series of 20 plasma enzymes. complement
The series of 20 plasma enzymes of an antibody become activated when they contact the antigen's _____________ complement-binding site
An antibody becoming activated when it contacts an antigen's complement-binding site results in a series of ____________. complement activations
The complement function of antibodies results in the _________ in the antigen bearing cell. cytolysis
One complement function of antibodies is to provide an ___________, that is, activation without stimulation by antigens. alternate pathway
What are the three groups of functions of antibodies? antigen-antibody reactions, complement, clonal selectional theory
___________ states that by selecting the lymphocytes with the ______________, each antigen provokes it's own destruction. clonal selection theory, complementary receptors
________ are lymphocytes that develop and multiply in the thymus. T cells
T cells are lymphocytes that develop and multiply in the ________. thymus
T cells leave the thymus and migrate to T-dependent zones in the _________ and _________. lymph nodes, spleen
___________ of T cells occur when an antigen binds to T cell antigen receptors. activation
During activation of a T cell, a ____________ processes the antigen. macrophage
During macrophage processing of an antigen, the macrophage presents the processed antigen to ___________ on the T cell. antigen receptors
Activating a T cell is also known as __________ a T cell. sensitizing
Activating a T cell causes the T cell to divide repeatedly, forming a _________ of identical sensitized T cells. clone
Cloned T cells can form either __________ or ___________. cytotoxic T cells, T memory cells
Sensitized T cells migrate to the site of the __________. antigen
Sensitized T cells bind to processed _________ presented by __________. antigens, macrophages
Antigen-bound sensitized T cells release chemical messengers called __________ into inflamed tissue. cytokines or lymphokines
Cytokines are also known as __________. lymphokines
__________ factors attract macrophages. chemotactic
__________ factors halt macrophage migration. migration inhibition
__________ factor increases phagocytosis. macrophage-activating
__________ (including perforin) kills cells. lymphotoxin
Cytotoxic T cells are also known as __________. killer T cells
Cytotoxic T cells release __________. lymphotoxin
___________ help B cells differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. helper T cells
Helper T cells help B cells differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells by secreting ____________ and ________. interleukin-2, interleukin-4
___________ T cells suppress B cell differentiation into plasma cells. suppressor
A type of specific immunity, inherited immunity is __________. genetic
_________ immunity is developed after birth. acquired
_________ immunity results from natural exposure to antigens. natural
__________ immunity is acquired through exposure to disease. natural active
__________ immunity is acquired from antibodies from mothers' milk. natural passive
__________ immunity is acquired through injections or oral ingestion of antigen. artificial active
__________ immunity is acquired through injection of antibodies. artificial passive
The immune system is located throughout the _________. body
The immune system includes many different types of cells and their ___________. secretions
The immune system is __________ with most body systems. interdependent
What disorder of the immune system is a result of hypersensitivity? allergies
What disorder of the immune system is an example of an autoimmunity disorder? systemic lupus erythematosus
What two conditions of the immune system are examples of isoimmunity conditions? pregnancy, tissue transplants
What are the two types of immune deficiencies? congenital, acquired (AIDS)
Created by: K1N1V