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A&P 2 - E2 - P1

A&P 2 - Exam 2 - Part 1 - Blood

QuestionAnswer
What is dependent on the continual transport of blood to and from cells? homeostasis
___________ makes up 55% of blood. plasma
___________ make up 45% of blood. formed elements
What is the volume of blood in females? 4-5 liters
What is the volume of blood in males? 5-6 liters
1 unit equals how many liters? about 0.5 liters
The direct method of blood volume measurement requires what? removal of all blood
The indirect method of blood volume measurement involves what? injection of a known amount of red blood cells tagged with radioisotopes
What is the term that is defined as "the percentage of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells"? hematocrit or packed cell volume (pcv)
Hematocrit is also known as __________. packed cell volume (pcv)
What is a normal hematocrit for males? 45%
What is a normal hematocrit for females? 42%
Too much formed elements is known as what? polycythemia
Red blood cells are also know as _____________. erythrocytes
The nucleus in a red blood cell is __________. absent
The shape of a red blood cell is a ___________ disk. biconcave
What is the diameter of a red blood cell? 7.5 µm
Red blood cells are filled with ____________. hemoglobin
What is the abbreviation for hemoglobin? Hb
Red blood cells have a _________ plasma membrane. thin
How many red blood cells per millimeter cubed in males? 5,500,000
How many red blood cells per millimeter cubed in females? 4,800,000
What is the function of red blood cells? transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
How many Hemoglobin (Hb) molecules are there per red blood cell? 200-300 million
How many oxygen molecules are carried by each hemoglobin (Hb) molecule? 4
What is the normal hemoglobin value in males? 14-16g per 100mL of blood
What is the normal hemoglobin value in females? 12-14g per 100mL of blood
Anemia: less than ________ of hemoglobin per 100 mL of blood 10g
Less than 10g of hemoglobin per 100 mL of blood is _____________ anemia
What is the formation of red blood cells known as? erythropoiesis
What are hemopoietic stem cells? hemocytoblasts
______________ go through stages to form erythrocytes. hemocytoblasts
What is the stimulus for red blood cell formation? erythropoietin
Erythropoietin is produced continually by the ___________. liver
The stimulus for increased increased red blood cell formation is _____________ levels in the kidney. low oxygen
The stimulus for increased red blood cell formation is low oxygen levels in the __________. kidney
____________ stimulates the hemocytoblasts to produce more red blood cells. erythropoietin
Erythropoietin stimulates the ______________ to produce more red blood cells. hemocytoblasts
Red blood cells last about _________ days. 120
Macrophage cells in the ___________ phagocytose old red blood cells. liver and spleen
Most components of old red blood cells are _____________. recycled
White blood cells are also know as ____________. leukocytes
Granulocytes have ___________ in cytoplasm. granules
Granulocytes have ___________ nuclei. lobed
Name the granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils
Neutrophils are what percentage of total white blood cells? 65-75%
___________ increase in number during acute infections. neutrophils
Neutrophils increase in number during ________ infections. acute
Eosinophils are what percentage of circulating white blood cells? 2-5%
___________ increase in number during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections. eosinophils
Eosinophils increase in number during ______________. allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections
Basophils are what percentage of total white blood cells? .5-1%
___________ increase in number during allergic reactions and periods of inflammation. basophils
Basophils increase in number during ____________. allergic reactions and periods of inflammation
Name the agranulocytes. lymphocytes & monocytes
Agranulocytes have ___________ in cytoplasm. no granules
Agranulocytes have ___________ nuclei. unlobed
Lymphocytes are what percentage of total white blood cells? 20-25%
What two types of lymphocytes are important in the immune response? thymic and bursal lymphocytes
T cells are also known as what? thymic or T lymphocytes
B cells are also known as what? bursal or B lymphocytes
Monocytes are what percentage of total white blood cells? 3-8%
__________ become macrophages in the tissues. monocytes
Monocytes become ____________ in the tissues. macrophages
Normal white blood cell numbers are ____________. 5000 to 9000 per mm cubed
____________ go through different differentiation and then various stages to form each type of white blood cell. hemopoietic stem cells (hemocytoblasts)
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and some lymphocytes and monocytes originate in ____________ tissue. red marrow
Most lymphocytes and monocytes originate in ____________ tissue. lymphoid
Platelets are also known as ___________. thrombocytes
Normal platelet count is ___________. 150,000 to 350,000 per mm cubed
Platelets are ___________ in diameter. 2-4 µm
The plasma membrane of platelets is made up of bound particles of cytoplasm containing ____________. clotting factors
The two functions of platelets are _________. hemostasis, coagulation
What is the platelet caused stoppage of blood flow? hemostasis
How does hemostasis by platelets occur? a platelet plug is formed by platelets sticking together (sticky platelets)
What is the platelet caused formation of a fibrin clot? coagulation
The average survival of platelets is ___________. about 7 days
In platelet formation, hemopoietic stems cells (hemocytoblasts) form _____________ which then form _____________. megkaryoblasts, megakaryocytes
Megakaryocytes form membrane bound cytoplasmic fragments known as ___________. platelets
Blood type is determined by the type of ______________ present on the red blood cell. agglutinogens
Agglutinogens are self ___________. antigens
Agglutinins are also known as _____________. antibodies
Antibodies are also known as _____________. agglutinins
A transfusion reaction between non-compatible bloods is ____________. agglutination
Agglutinins are plasma antibodies that cause _____________ in red blood cells with specific agglutinogens. agglutination
Reactions between agglutinogens and agglutinins of non-compatible blood cause red blood cells to ____________. agglutinate
Two of the several blood type systems are the ____________. ABO system and the Rh system
In type A blood, red blood cells have agglutinogen ____ and the plasma has agglutinin _______. A, anti-B
In type B blood, red blood cells have agglutinogen ____ and the plasma has agglutinin _______. B, anti-A
In type AB blood, red blood cells have agglutinogen ____ and the plasma has agglutinin _______. A&B, no agglutinin (no anti-A or B)
In type O blood, red blood cells have agglutinogen ____ and the plasma has agglutinin _______. no agglutinogen, anti-A and anti-B
What blood type is the universal donor? O
What blood type is the universal recipient? AB
In type Rh-positive, red blood cells have ___________ on their plasma membranes and the plasma has ___________. Rh protein, no anti-Rh agglutinins
In type Rh-negative, red blood cells have ___________ on their plasma membranes and initially the plasma has ___________. no Rh protein, no anti-Rh agglutinins
____________ occurs when a Rh-negative mother, who has been exposed to Rh-positive blood, causes the agglutination of the red blood cells of a Rh-positive fetus. erythroblastosis fetalis
If a mother is Rh-____________ and has been exposed to Rh-___________ blood, her blood will have ___________ agglutinin in the plasma negative, positive, anti-Rh
If a fetus is Rh-____________, the mother's anti-Rh agglutinins will pass through the ____________ and cause agglutination of fetal red blood cells. positive, placenta
Blood plasma is made up of what percentage water? 91%
Blood plasma is made up of what percentage solutes? 9%
Solutes within blood plasma fall under what two categories? electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
Proteins are what percentage of blood plasma? 7%
Three examples of electrolytes within blood plasma are ___________. sodium, chloride & potassium
Five categories of nonelectrolytes within blood plasma are ___________. proteins, wastes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances (hormones)
Serum is the liquid of the blood without ____________. clotting factors
_______ is the liquid of the blood without clotting factors. serum
Blood clotting is also known as __________. coagulation
Prothrombinase is also known as ______________. prothrombin activator
_____________ starts with damaged tissue and ends with the production of the enzyme prothrombinase. extrinsic clotting pathway
_____________ starts with damaged endothelial cells contacting platelets and ends with the production of the enzyme prothrombinase. intrinsic clotting pathway
Prothrombin activator (prothrombinase) converts __________ to ___________. prothrombin, thrombin
Thrombin is an enzyme that converts ___________ to ___________ for the clot. fibrinogen, fibrin
What are two conditions that oppose clotting in intact vessels? smooth endothelium, presence of antithrombins (eg heparin)
What is an example of an antithrombin that opposes clotting in an intact vessel? heparin
What type of endothelium opposes clotting in an intact vessel? smooth
What are two conditions that hasten clotting? rough places on endothelium, abnormally slow blood flow
Clot dissolution is also known as ___________. fibrinolysis
In clot dissolution, naturally occurring ____________ can be activated to form ___________, which dissolves clots. plasminogen, plasmin
Bacteria produced, clot dissolving chemicals include __________ and ________, both which have medical applications. strepto-kinase, t-PA
Plasma links tissues of the body by transporting materials throughout the body to maintain ____________. homeostasis
What transports oxygen and carbon dioxide? red blood cells
White blood cells are important in the whole body's ____________ mechanism. defense
Functions of blood depend on what other three systems? respiratory, endocrine, urinary
Blood must flow continuously to maintain ____________ (other than homeostasis) stability
___________ is a loss of the total oxygen carrying capacity by the red blood cells. anemia
Anemia is due to either a decrease of _____________ or a decrease in ____________. hemoglobin, red blood cells
____________ is a type of anemia that is a decrease in red blood cells caused by outside agents like chemicals or radiation. aplastic anemia
____________ is a type of anemia that is a result of genetic mutations that alter hemoglobin. hemolytic anemia
Two types of hemolytic anemia are ______________. sickle cell anemia, thalassemia
______________ is a type of hemolytic anemia that is caused by altered hemoglobin chains. thalassemia
An excess of red blood cells is known as _____________. polycythemia
____________ is a type of anemia that occurs when the body cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract. pernicious anemia
_____________ is a white blood cell disorder in which WBC count is under ________ per mm cubed. leukopenia, 5000
Leukopenia can be caused by ______________. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
____________ is a white blood cell disorder in which WBC count is abnormally high, over ________ per mm cubed. leukocytosis, 10000
Leukocytosis can be caused by ______________. leukemia
___________ is a clotting disorder of excessive clotting in which the clot stays in one place. thrombus, thrombosis
___________ is a clotting disorder of excessive clotting in which the clot dislodges and travels in the blood stream. embolus, embolism
___________ is a clotting disorder of failure to clot in which there is an absence of clotting factor. hemophilia
___________ is a clotting disorder of failure to clot in which there is a decrease in platelet count. thrombocytopenia
____________ is a type of anemia caused by folic acid deficiency. folate deficiency anemia
Created by: K1N1V on 2011-10-13



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