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America Southwest 1

America Southwest

Anasazi (1) culture that existed from about 1200BC to 1300AD in the 4 corners area of SW U.S. best known for the ruins of their monumentual cliff dwellings at places like Mesa Verde, which they abandoned at the end of the 13th century
pueblo culture indian village in the southwest
Mesa Verde a national parkin southwestern Colorado, site of many Anasazi cliff dwellings
Anasazi (2) Navaho word which, depending on pronounciation, means either "enemy ancestors" or "ancient people who are not us"
Chaco Canyon extensive ancient puebloan culture in NW New Mexico;known for massive stone buildings of multiple stories containing hundreds of rooms
Aztec Ruins Anasazi village in New Mexico with largest reconstructed ceremonial kiva
Bandelier National monument containing a number of ancestral pueblo homes,multistory dwelllings, kivas, rock paintings, etc.
Tuzigoot ancient hilltop agricultural pueblo in az that consisted of multi story structures
Hopi believed to be descended from the ancient puebloam cultures who constructed large apartment house complexes in Arizona and New Mexico along the rim where they abandoned their large villages
Zuni like the hopi descendants of the Anasazi
Navajo people were hunter-gatherers until they adopted pueblo life.
Taos an ancient pueblo belonging to a taos speaking Native American tribe of pueblo people
Acoma it is a Native American pueblo built on top of a 367-foot sandstone mesa in New Mexico
flint a hard, sedimentary crystalline form of the mineral quartz ; can made with a harder stone to make arrowheads and spearpoints.
Conquistadors spanish soldiers who conquered Mexico and the American Southwest and established a network of settlements
drought an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiancy in its water supply
Pueblo Revolt in 1680, after years of Spanish religious persecution and brutality, New Mexico and Arizona pueblos coordinated an attack
turquoise an opaque, blue to green mineral prized by teh Navajo and other pueblo peoples for making silver jewelry
sandpainting the art of pouring colored sands, powdered pigments from minerals or crystals and pigments from other natural sources onto a surface
mano a grinding stone which is handheld used to grind grain nuts and seeds
metate A flat or slightly concave stone base on which grain, nuts, and seeds were ground using the smaller mano
Taos Pueblo The oldest, continually inhabited pueblo in America, near the upper Rio Grande canyon(NM).
Monogollon Spanish for hanger-on, or sponger. A seperate culture which coexisted and had commerce with the Anasazi. These ancient farmers lived in what is now southern AZ-NM and northern Mexico. Named for the Mogollon Plataeu.
Hohokam A Native American culture flourishing from about the 3rd century B.C. to the mid 15th century A.D. in south-central Arizona, noted for the construction of an extensive system of irrigation
Colorado Plateau Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern US. 90% of the area is drained by the Colorado River. Largely made up of deserts, with scattered areas of forests. The Grand Canyon is in the SW corner.
foot holds/ hand holds Holes carved into the sheer rock face of cliffs so pueblo people could climb up or down from cliff dwellings. Also made defense of their villages easier
nomadic Constantly moving; never settling in one place; following food supplies and moving with the seasons
sedentary Stationary; settled in one place.
horticulture Cultivating plants and seeds for food
Pueblo diet Pueblo diet corn, beans, squash, pinon nuts, fish, deer, rabbits, antelope, birds
Santa Clara Pueblo on the Rio Grande, between Ohkay Owingeh(formerly San Jaun Pueblo) to the north and San Ildefonso Pueblo to the south.Santa Clara Pueblo is famous for producing hand crafted pottery, specificly blackware and reware with deep engravings.
kiva 1. A square, above-ground room used by modern day Hopi for religiousand spiritual ceremonies. 2. A subterranean room- usually round, generally believed to have been used by the Anasazi men for religious and ceremonial purposes
foot drums Holes carved into the sheer rock face of cliffs so pueblo people could climb up or down from cliff dwellings. Also made defense of their villages easier.
pictographs Pictures or picture-like symbols that represent an idea or tell a story. Pictographs can be foundin the works of many ancient cultures on papyrus or wood,on cloth, on pottery and jewelry, painted on walls.
pottery Pueblo culture is known for many styles of pottery from across the plateau region. Each pueblo has its own distinctive style.
yucca plant Member of the agave family with stiff green sword-like leaves an white flowerson a tall stalk. Pueblo peoples used roots and flowers for food, tips for needles, fibers for weaving baskets, sandals and rope, and sap(aloe vera) for medicine.
kachinas 1. Benevolent spiritual intermediaries between certain southwestern peoplesand the gods. Kachinas bring good health, fertility, rain, abundance, and other blessings. 2. Dolls or images of the supernatural beings.
weaving Pueblo peoples wove decorative baskets and sandals from the fibers of the yucca plant. They wove colorful, intricate blankets from sheep's wool, dyed with natural plant and rock materials.
Monument Valley Region in the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster of vast sandstone buttes, the largest reaching 1,000 ft above the valley floor.
cliff dwellers Native Americans of the Anasazi culture who were builders of the ancient cliff dwellings found in the canyons, under cliff overhangs and on the mesas of the U.S. southwest.
Montezuma's Castle Well-preserved cliff-dwellings. They were built and used by the Pre-Columbian Sinagua people, northern cousins of the Hohokam around 700 AD. Several Hopi clans trace their roots to immagrants from the Montezuma's Castle\Beaver Creek area.
hogan The primary traditional round home of the Navajo people; made of wooden poles covered with a ayer of mud. Door faces east to face the sun.
wikiup A temporary domed room dwelling, usually consructed of branches and reeds used by certain southwest Native American tribes to provide shade and ventilation.
maize early form of corn
Fremont Culture The Fremont lived a lifestyle that revolved largely around hunting and gathering and corn horticulture. A Pre-Columbian archaelogical culture which recieved it's name from the Fremont River in the U.S. state of Utah.
marauders Nomadic tribes who raided and plundered agricultural pueblos.
Apache One of the nomadic, hunter-gatherer, marauding tribes of the Southwest plateau region. Speak Athabaskan.
granary Storage room for grain made of adobe mud bricks, stone and\or wood frames. Usually in high cliff locations to protect from animals and raiding tribes.
Kayenta Regional group of the Anasazi, named for the region around Kayenta in northeastern Arizona. Monument Valley. The Kayenta Anasazi are ancestors of the Hopi, who prefer to call the area "Wunuqa."
Keresan One of the languages of the Anasazi and descendants, including the people of Acoma, Cochiti, Laguna, Santa Ana, Santa Domingo, San Filipe, and Zia Pueblos in New Mexico.
KoKopelli A well known mythological hump-backed flute player in most Southwestern Pueblo cultures. Among other things, this spiritual figure represents fertility and rain.
Moki or Moqui A Hopi word meaning "the dead" which is often used to identify their ancestors. Preferred to the Dine Navajo word, "Anasazi."
petroglyphs Rock carving or rock art made by "pecking" the surface with another rock. Ex. "Newspaper Rock" in Holbrook, Arizona.
pinon Spanish for "pine nut."Small pine tree with large edible nuts.
pithouse A house built substancially underground. Used by many early cultures, including the Anasazi. Consisted of a pit, often lined with rocks, and a roof of branches, mud, etc., held up by verticle timbers, usually four.
potsherd Fragment of broken pottery. Also "shard"
Pueblo Bonito Spanish for "pretty village." The most famous Great House at Chaco Canyon.
Puebloan 1. Modern Native American Indian peoples, including those living at Hopi, Zuni, Acoma, Laguna, Jemez, and Zia pueblos and the 14 Rio Grande pueblos. 2. Anasazi ancestors of the modern Puebloans.
sipapu 1. The "navel" of the Earth from which distant Puebloan ancestors are said to have emerged as they entered the present world. 2. The small hole or indentation in the floor of a kiva which symbolizes the people's Earthly origin.
spindle whorl In hand spinning, the spindle is a rounded wooden rod for twisting cotton fibers into thread. The whorl is a sort of flywheel that regulates the speed of the spinning wheel.
teosinte Tall grass-like native of Mexico with tassel and small, hard ears. Believed to be ancestor of corn.
tree ring dating Scientific technique of comparing a cut timber to a master calendar of tree-ring growth from about 6,700 B.C. to the present. Based on the fact that a tree ring grows each year and the rings are narrower in dry years and wider in wet years.
stone martar and restle Hollowed stone bowl and mashing tool used to grind maize, nuts, berries, and pigments.
Colorado river 1,450 mile long river that flows southwest from the Continental Divide to the Gulf of California. It's powerful waters formed the Grand Canyon over 9 million years.
Rio Grande river 1,896 miles long and flows from southwestern Colorado in the United States to the Gulf of Mexico. Forms U.S. southern border with Mexico.
pueblo culture music Foot drums, tamborines, reed flute, turtle shell rattles used to create connections to the spirit world and reflect sounds of the natural landscape.
mesa An elevated area of land with a flat topand sides that are usually steep cliffs. It takes its name from its characteristic table-top shape.
Created by: landre16