Logic Exam 2
Introduction to Logic
|What is a Premise? ||A claim that is used as a reason for thinking that another claim (The conclusion)is true.|
|What is a conclusion? ||A claim that has been given reasons (The premises) for thinking that it is true.|
|What is "Valid"? ||A valid argument is a pattern of reasoning in which the conclusion is a rationally inevitable consequence of the premise of premises.|
|What is a claim? ||A statement that is either true or false.|
|What is a "Question"? ||It is a request for Information|
|What is a "command"? ||It is an order that something be done.|
|What is a "simple claim?" ||A claim that does not contain any logical connectives.|
|What is a "complex claim"? ||A claim that contains at least one logical connective.
|What is "The rule of order" ||The order of the premises doesn't matter as long as 1) Each line is numbered in order beginning with "1" and (2) the conclusion comes last.|
|What is a "sound argument"? ||An argument which is valid and whose premises are all true.
|What is an "unsound argument"? ||An argument which is either invalid, or has a false premise.|
|What is a sub-conclusion? ||A conclusion that is also used as a premise for a further conclusion, it is not a final conclusion.
|What is a "Main conclusion?" ||A conclusion that is not also used as a premise for a further conclusion, it is a final conclusion|
|What is a "sub-argument"? ||An argument for a sub-conclusion.|
|What is a "main argument" ||An argument for the main conclusion.|
|What is an enthymeme? ||An argument with at least one hidden premise.|
|What is the principle of absolute pickiness? ||Attribute to an author the argument that most exactly fits what the author wrote|
|Principle of charity? ||Attribute to an author the best argument that is compatible with the words the author actually used.|
|What is a contradiction? ||A complex claim that is false simply because of its logical form regardless of the truth values of its component claims.|
|What is a "tautology?" ||A complex claim that is true simply because of its logical form regardless of the truth values of its component claims.|
|What is "Logically equivalent"? ||When two claims have their truth values are the same in all cases.|
|What is "Logically consistent"? ||When two claims can both be "true" simultaneously.|